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Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Plants

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Table of contents 9 9 11 14 16 18 20

Introduction What are psychoactive plants? The use of psychoactive plants Psychoactive plants and shamanic consciousness The fear of psychoactive plants Research into psychoactive plants Psychoactive plants as cultural factors


The psychoactive plants


For the structure of the large monographs


The most important genera and species from A to Z Large monographs


Little researched psychoactive small monographs


Allegedly psychoactive plants)) Legal high s «


So far


Psychoactive mushrooms

622 626

On the archeology of entheogenic mushroom cults. On the cultivation of mushrooms


The genera and species from A to Z


General literature on psychoactive mushrooms




Active plant ingredients


Plant active ingredients and neurotransmitters


The active plant ingredients from A to Z


Psychoactive plants and mushrooms according to botanical systematics




General Bibliography Bibliographies Periodicals Books and Articles



879 879 878







909 Index

Foreword by Albert Hofmann

"The real is just as magical as the magical really is." E R N S T YOUNGER Sicilian letter to the moon

The point in time at which something happens in this world is determined by the conditions that call for this event. So the present encyclopedia of psychoactive plants had to appear right now, because today's society needs such a work. This need is related to the spiritual and material plight of our time. There is no need to enumerate in detail where it is no longer true in our world. What is meant in the spiritual field are materialism, egoism, loneliness, lack of a religious basis for life; On the material level, destruction of the environment as a result of mechanization and over-industrialization, the threat of exhaustion of natural reserves, the accumulation of enormous fortunes among individuals with a simultaneous increasing impoverishment of a large number of the population. This threatening development has its spiritual cause in a dualistic world view, in a conscious splitting of the world experience into subject and object. Such a dualistic world experience first developed in Europe. It was already effective in the Judeo-Christian worldview with a God enthroned over creation and humanity and his "make the earth subject to you." "This is happening now to a terrifying extent. A turn for the better can only occur if there is a general change in consciousness, if the split consciousness that Gottfried Benn called the "European fate neurosis" is replaced by a consciousness in which creator-creation-creature are experienced as a unity. All means, all paths that lead to a new, universal spirituality deserve to be promoted. These include above all meditation, which can be supported and deepened by various methods; through yoga practices, breathing exercises, fasting, etc. and through the sensible use of certain drugs as pharmacological aids. The drugs referred to here belong to a special group of psychoactive substances known as psychedelics and, more recently, also as entheogens. Its effect consists in an enormous stimulation of the sensory perception, a reduction or even lifting of the I-Thou barrier and a change in consciousness in the sense of sensitization and expansion. The use of such psychedelic drugs in a religious-ceremonial setting was made

discovered by Indian tribes in Mexico at the beginning and middle of this century. This sensational discovery resulted in a worldwide ethnobotanical search of remote areas for psychoactive plants. The results were recorded in numerous publications and images. The encyclopedic summary of the old knowledge and the new discoveries in the field of psychoactive plants by a competent author who has contributed important new findings through his own field research is a meritorious undertaking. The dissemination of knowledge of psychoactive plants and their sensible use forms a valuable contribution in the context of the many and growing efforts to help a new, holistic consciousness to break through. The increasing importance of transpersonal psychology in psychiatry pursues the same goal in a therapeutic context. Holistic looking is better practiced on living nature than on human-made, dead objects. Let us look better into a living mandala, for example into the calyx of a blue bindweed blossom, which in perfection and beauty surpasses anything man-made a thousand times over; for it is filled with life, with the same universal life, in which both the seeer and the beheld have their individual share as manifestations of the same creative spirit.

Dr. phil. Dr. h.c. mult. Albert Hofmann summer 1997

Foreword of the


My grandma bequeathed me a lot of wisdom that I have successfully adhered to all my life. Especially her saying "Try is better than study summer of love drugs" or "narcotics" and think: "Oh, if only you would have smoked a good hashish pipe when you were twelve years old; We would have been spared many problems! «During my research trips to Nepal I learned that the three basic evils of existence are hate, envy and ignorance. Tantric teaching has found all kinds of methods to become aware of these basic evils and to overcome them through changed states of consciousness. I wish all people - especially the politicians and psychiatrists of western countries - that one day they too will understand that a main cause of the catastrophic state of our mother earth is ignorance! On my extensive travels in all continents I have observed again and again that people of all cultures, all social classes, all religions and skin colors consume psychoactive plants or psychoactive products. Why do people take psychoactive substances? - Because a basic need for intoxication, ecstasy, blissful sleep, knowledge and enlightenment is written into our genes. While working on the manuscript for the present book, I realized that it was my "first life's work". Research results and experience from the last twenty years come together here. I have collected information from all over the world, built up a large special library, attended countless congresses and symposia, photographed my way through the plant world and experimented with as many psychoactive plants as possible. This collection of knowledge has now been arranged and condensed in this encyclopedia.

Dr. phil. Christian Rätsch

o Thoughts are free (...) because my thoughts break the barriers and walls in two. . . «German folk song

Introduction Almost everyone in almost every culture ingests products from one or more psychoactive plants on a daily basis, regardless of whether it is an Amazon Indian or a Central European. Even the Mormons who claim they “do not use drugs” have their psychoactive stimulant: Mormon tea (Ephedra nevadensis), which contains the powerful alkaloid ephedrine, the model substance for amphetamines. The use of psychoactive substances is extreme in South American countries. The typical Amazon Indian drinks guarana, cocoa or mate (sometimes all together) after getting up. After breakfast, the first coca bit is put in the mouth. It stays there until evening and is constantly renewed. At noon he switched to a fermented drink made from corn or cassava. In the late afternoon, a couple of snuff containing tryptamine are sucked into the nose. There is often ayahuasca in the evening. It goes without saying that every free minute is filled with smoking, chewing, sniffing or licking tobacco. For the Tukano Indians, the use of psychoactive plants is mythologically linked to the beginning of the world. The sun father was a paye, a shaman who bestowed all of their knowledge and skills on today's shamans. At the beginning of the world he carried vihö, the snuff powder obtained from the bark of the virola tree, in his navel. The Ayahuascalian came into the world through his daughter. When she was in labor, one of her fingers broke off. The midwife standing by her side took her finger and tended it in the maloca, the cosmic round house. A young man saw this and stole his finger. He buried it and the Ayahuascalian grew out of it. Another daughter of the Sun Father was also pregnant. When she writhed in the pain of childbirth, her finger also broke off. This time the midwife took the finger herself and buried it. From this., The first coca plant arose. Since these plants are associated with the origin of the world, they are considered sacred. In the modern western world, the use of psychoactive plant products is very widespread, but their sanctity has been profaned. After having coffee in the morning, who knows that the Sufis worshiped the coffee tree as a "plant of the gods" and that the stimulating effect of caffeine was a divine grace? Nobody thinks about the first cigarette in bed that tobacco is a gift from the gods that helps shamans to travel to other realities. Who still remembers the roaring bacchanalia in honor of Dionysus while enjoying the Viertele wine in the afternoon? By the evening beer in front of the telly at the latest, there is no longer any knowledge of the sacred origin of the barley drink. And yet our ancestors, the Germans and the Celts, knew and appreciated him and made him immortal in their poetry: “The Celts certainly knew alcohol. The ancient Greek and Roman authors already had a reputation for being passionate lovers of intoxicating drinks. Drunkenness is a common theme in the epics, especially in Ireland. Gods and heroes rival each other in an almost inextinguishable thirst for alcohol in the form of wine, beer or hydromel, the Celtic mead that is still known today. The decisive factor in this ritual is the taking off, the unleashing, through which one forgets that the human being is an earthbound being. «(MARKALE 1989: 203) Ecstasy is about the use of psychoactive plants and psychoactive products. The present work shows how rich the knowledge about these substances is: Perhaps we can learn from it - like our ancestors - to recognize the sanctity of intoxicants through the right use and the right knowledge and thus to have deeper experiences of the sanctity of nature .

What are psychoactive plants? Psychoactive plants are plants that humans take in the form of simple or complex preparations in order to affect their psyche or to change their state of consciousness. Consciousness is an energy field that can expand, that can meander amorphously like an amoeba into the hidden corners of the world, that can dissolve in the ocean of pleasure or crystallize in geometric clarity. Consciousness can be paralyzed, subdued and limited by psychoactive plants and products; but it can also be stimulated, stimulated and expanded. Since the psychoactive plants move the mind, they have also been called "mind-moving substances". The famous Berlin toxicologist Louis Lewin (18501929) called all substances that have any psychoactive effect as "phantastics". The pharmacist Carl Hartwich (1851-1917) described them as "human beings". Such substances are now often referred to as psychotropic ("psyche-influencing") substances. The term psychotropic drugs ("affecting the mind") is also frequently used. Timothy Leary (1920-1996) liked to speak of "neurobotanical substances".

The psychoactive substances, English mindaltering substances, are divided into a clear system in the pharmacological literature according to scientifically exact definitions (cf. INABA and COHEN 1994, SEYMOUR and SMITH 1987, WAGNER 1985): • Stimulants (»uppers«) fall into this category Substances that wake up, stimulate the mind, even euphorize it, stimulate energy, but do not cause any changes in perception. The most important plants in this category include coffee, tea, cocoa, guarana, mate, seaweed, kat and coca. • Sedatives, hypnotics, narcotics (»downers«) This includes all calming, sleep-inducing, anxiety-relieving, narcotic substances that sometimes cause changes in perception, e.g. dream images, and often also convey euphoric feelings. The main psychoactive plants and products in this category are poppy seeds, opium, valerian and hops. • Hallucinogens ("all arounders") This includes all substances that cause significant changes in perception, in space-time perception and in emotional mood. Most of the plants recorded in this encyclopedia fall into this category. In the course of time these substances have been named differently: - Psychotomimetics (»imitating psychoses«) - psychotics (»triggering psychoses«) - hallucinogens (JOHNSON; »producing hallucinations«) - psychedelics (OSMOND; »manifesting the psyche«) - entheogens ( RUCK et al.); »Awakening the divine«) - entactogens (NIGHOLS; »promoting self-knowledge«) - empathogens (METZNER; »stimulating compassion«) - eidetics (»generating ideas«) - psychotogens (»influencing the soul«) - psychodysleptics (»softening the soul «) The term most used today is still hallucinogen. A hallucinogen is by definition a substance that can trigger "hallucinations" (SIEGEL, 1995b). The common medical definition is: »Hallucination: possibly several (to all) senses affecting (= complex), not caused by corresponding external sensory stimuli, but having a reality-like illusion for the person concerned; v. a. in schizophrenia, brain irritation (e.g. poisoning, epilepsy, after brain injuries, through the effects of hallucinogens. ”(ROCHE LEXIKON MEDIZIN, 2nd edition, 1987, page 725) Circles and publications most frequently talked about psychedelics, entheogens or visionary substances and accordingly of visionary, entheogenic or psychedelic experiences: »The awakening of the senses is the most fundamental aspect of the psychedelic experience. The open eye, the naked touch, the intensification and enlivening of the ear and nose and taste. This is the zen moment of the satori, the high of the nature mystic, the sudden concentration of consciousness on the sense organ, the insight: This is it! I am the eye. I am the ear. I feel. I am the touch . «(LEARY 1982: 33) The shamans, the traditional specialists in psychoactive substances, speak well of course not from psychoactive or psychotropic drugs or hallucinogens - certainly not from "narcotics" - but from "plant teachers", "magic plants" I, "plants of the gods", "sacred drinks" etc. They worship these spirit-moving plants, bring them to them Make offerings; they do not use them as recreational drugs or "gymnastics" every evening, but as sacraments in their rituals. They are sacred because they enable contact with the other world, with the invisible world, with true reality, with gods, spirits and demons. They are holy because plant spirits, plant gods or devas live in them, with whom one can connect, who are valued as teachers, "mothers", ambassadors, doctores ("doctors") of other realities. In addition, these sacred plants have healing powers. They can free the sick from their suffering, they can drive away harmful sick spirits, but they can also bring spiritual growth to healthy people and make mystical experiences possible. With the help of these plants, Iran does not lose control, because it is an illusion anyway. Nor is it used to flee from reality, but to recognize true reality: “We see that the plants not only sustain our bodies. They also promote and nourish our soul and enable the enlightenment of our spirit. Their existence is offering, sacrifice and selfless love. The earth on which they grow is itself a sacrificial altar - and we, who receive their blessing, are the sacrificial priests. Through plants, the outer light of the sun and the stars becomes the inner light that radiates towards us from our soul. This is the reason why plants were always and everywhere considered sacred, divine. «(STORL 1997: 20)

The use of psychoactive plants Man has a natural need for ecstatic experiences (WEIL 1976, SIEGEL 1995a). The experience of ecstasy is just as much a part of being human and a fulfilled and happy life as the orgasm. Indeed, among many peoples, ecstasy is referred to by the same word as orgasm. ' The possibility of having ecstatic experiences is a basic condition of human consciousness.All archaic or ethnographic cultures have devised methods to trigger such experiences (BOURGUIGNON 1973, DITTRICH 1996). Some methods are more effective than others. The most successful method is ingesting psychoactive plants or substances. However, this method requires a certain amount of skill, as there are many factors that determine the effect and content of the experience. It always depends on the correct, i.e. responsible and purposeful use. The definition of proper hashish use by Fitz Hugh Ludlow (18361870), whose book The Hashish Eater (published 1857) was the first American literary work on the effect of hashish, is astonishing: “There is a fact that is cited as a justification for craving for drugs can, without getting into the vicinity of unfair secondary intentions, namely that drugs can bring people close to divine experience and thus raise them above their personal fate and everyday living conditions into a higher form of reality. However, it is necessary to understand exactly what is meant by the use of drugs in this case. We don't mean purely physical desire (...). What we are talking about is something incomparably higher, namely the realization of the possibility of the soul to enter into a lighter being, to catch deeper insights and greater visions of beauty, truth and the divine than you would otherwise, through the cracks of your prison cell peeking would be possible. But there aren't many drugs that have the power to satisfy such cravings. The whole catalog, as far as research has now written it, should probably only include opium, hashish and, in rarer cases, alcohol, which only has an enlightening effect on very specific characters. «(LUDLOW 1981: 181) There are very different forms of use of psychoactive substances Plants. The reasons for taking them range from relaxation, recreation and pleasure (hedonism) to medical-therapeutic treatment, rituals, religious ceremonies and spiritual growth. It is the task of culture and society to provide individuals with utility models that serve these purposes.

Drug culture Experience and research have clearly shown that a traditional use of psychoactive substances has existed or still exists in all cultures around the world: “Every society, every time has its drug culture. In accordance with the complexity of society, its drug culture is also more or less complex, for example focused only on a single, central drug or comprising a variety of drugs. It can be subdivided into internal cultures, which can also contradict one another. "(MARZAHN 1994: 82) These" internal cultures "are often also called" subcultures "or" scenes ". Within such cultural structures, cultural patterns often form that are apparently archetypal for human existence. Marzahn analyzes traditional rituals in which psychoactive substances - he probably uses the term »drugs« as a provocation - are used, and from them constructs a model according to which a common drug culture can be re-formed and reconstituted in all parts of the world: » But this seems to be the deepest meaning of common drug culture, that the exit, the crossing of boundaries, that precisely a culture of crossing boundaries, needs inner order. In the context of common drug culture, the use of drugs is not tabooed out of time and space. Rather, it has its clear and delimited place in both. You gather in a special place and surround yourself with the right space and beautiful device. Common drug use has a beginning and an end. And it runs itself according to an inner order that has arisen from experience and is therefore not arbitrary and has condensed into a ceremony, a rite over time. It is this internal order and its external form, the ritual, that guide the right use of the drug and protect it from harm and destruction. In all common drug cultures it is therefore incumbent on the knowledgeable to introduce the inexperienced into this order. «(MARZAHN 1994: 45) In many peoples, the knowledgeable are the shamans, sometimes the priests, fortune tellers or medicine people. We have a deep crack here, a wound, because those who know traditionally are thanks to forced Christianization, imperialism, inquisition,

Witch persecution, enlightenment and positivism all gone. But in the "internal cultures" the psychoactive life pulsates and, according to the archaic patterns, leads to a sensible use of psychoactive substances. «(MARZAHN 1994: 47)

Most important: the theory of dose, set and setting To better understand the effectiveness of psychoactive plants, the theory of dose, set and setting provides a useful model. When Harvard professor Dr. Timothy Leary (1920-1996) carried out scientific experiments with psychedelic substances (LSD, psilocybin) in the early 1960s, he developed his theory (LEARY et al. 1964). It says that three main factors are responsible for the experiences triggered by psychedelics. The first factor is the dose - a truism since antiquity, at least since Paracelsus. The set is the inner attitude and constitution of the person, his expectation, his wishes, his fears. The third aspect is the setting, that is the environment, the place, the time, in short the space in which the event takes place. The effect results equally from chemical-pharmacological, psychological and physical influences. What Timothy Leary postulated for psychedelics applies to the experience with all psychoactive plants (including the stimulating and narcotic). In order to experience them and understand them, the three factors must be carefully considered. The same plant can even cause very different effects in the same person depending on the dosage, set and setting. First of all, of course, it depends on which plant you have chosen. The correct dose of this must be taken. But what is a "correct dose"? It is the amount that leads to the desired effect. However, since the effect cannot be explained solely by the dose, the "correct dose" can only be found by taking into account the other factors. "Trying is better than studying", says an old saying. It is especially true here. When experimenting, you should always start with low doses. Better too little than too much. Next time you can take more. If you swallow too much too quickly, it can have unpleasant effects or even become dangerous. If you take strychnine, for example, the dose is extremely important. A small dose can give delicious feelings and sexual power, too high a dose can lead to: Death. For example, Indians differentiate between three levels of dosage for magic mushrooms: a medicinal, an aphrodisiac and a shamanic one. The medicinal dosage is an amount that has no psychoactive effect, but is beneficial for certain ailments. The aphrodisiac dose is higher; the mind is activated but not showered with visions or hallucinations; the perception and sensitivity are increased, the body is stimulated and strengthened. The shamanic dose catapults consciousness into another reality, floods it with cosmic visions and allows people to look into the worlds beyond the usual space and time experience. The kit is perhaps the most significant factor in sensing the effectiveness of a psychoactive plant, especially when it comes to a hallucinogenic substance. Such substances have the property of activating, reinforcing and, if necessary, mercilessly exposing everything that a person carries in his consciousness or has buried under it. People who were brought up with the repressive ideas of the Catholic religion have to struggle in an extreme way with the original sin that was placed in their cradle, while the nature-loving pagan perceives partner as a temple of divine pleasure. In traditional cultures, the set is essentially shaped by the worldview common to all individuals and, above all, by the mythology of the tribe. Mythology is a kind of cartography of visionary worlds and other realities. With the help of this cartography the conscious traveler can reach the desired destination. What is more, he can always rely on the help of the accompanying shaman. The shaman is the best cartographer of the other, visionary reality. Even if you get lost there, the shaman can bring you back. The contents of the visions are therefore culturally shaped.

Psychoactive plants and shamanic consciousness The shaman is not only a hunter, warrior, healer, fortune teller and entertainer, he is also an empirical scientist and thinker. With the Tanimuka, a group of Tukano Indians, shamanism is consequently called »thinking« (ELISABETH REICHELDOLMATOFF). The shaman is above all a visionary, one who has real visions: “A shaman is someone who has received a vision of the beginning and the end of all things and who can communicate this vision. This is incomprehensible to the rational thinker, but the techniques of shamanism are aimed at one goal. The power of the shaman also has its origin here. The use of plant hallucinogens is the top priority in shamanic techniques. These plant hallucinogens are the sources of a living, plant-inspired knowledge of God or gnosis, which gushed in our distant past and has since been almost completely forgotten. "(MCKENNA 1996: 30)" Shamanism is the gateway to the real world " , said the ethnopsychologist Holger Kalweit at the symposium "The shamanic universe" (9/96) and meant that the shamanic consciousness is the real world or, as the Indians put it, the "real reality". For many Indians in the Central and South American rainforests, the everyday world is seen as an appearance, as a superficial necessity. "4" This appears to the knowing as the world of effects, the world of myths, on the other hand, as that of the causes "(DELTGEN 1993: 125). Ayahuasca or Yage, the "drink of true reality", helps people to penetrate this semblance of everyday reality and to get to the core of reality. The reality experienced under the influence of ayahuasca is the reality of myths, it appears more real and meaningful. “The drug is a medium, a vehicle between this and that reality. It is the gateway to knowledge. The kumu [shaman], however, is the mediator between the two worlds, depending on his strength and his talents, a more passive or more active one. "(DELTGEN 1993: 141) But the" ingestion of these hallucinogens is not considered to be a special one, namely a chemical one The active substance is understood as the contact with the spirit beings (owners, “mothers”, species spirits) who rule over the corresponding plant and embody its “essence”. «(BAER 1987: 71) The plant spirits are the shaman's auxiliary spirits in the healing process: »The hallucinogenic plants or their owners' spirits open the eyes of those who ingest them; they allow him to recognize the extra-everyday reality, which is considered reality par excellence, and it is ultimately, not the shaman, who free the sick from their evil. "(BAER 1987: 79) But not everyone can command the helping spirits:" So the caji [ayahuasca] does not do the shaman. Conversely: the person called to be a shaman, the spiritually gifted, is able to make something of the drug and its effects. "(DELTGEN 1993: 200) But just like the shamans, most Amazonian Indians live according to their Ayahuasca visions:" Our ancestors regulated their entire rhythm of life after the visions of Ayahuasca; Was it a matter of producing weapons, drawings, graphics, colors, clothing, medicine or other things, or was it a matter of finding the right time to travel or to cultivate the fields, with the Ayahuasca visions they tried to organize themselves better . «(Rivas 1989: 182) Now shamans all over the world take psychoactive plants and products in order to get into the shamanic state of consciousness and to be able to travel into the visionary world, the other reality. The substances used by shamans are chemically and pharmacologically z. T. very different. They contain different classes of active ingredients that are analogous to or related to different endogenous neurotransmitters (see box) '. Nevertheless, they are used as pharmacological stimuli for the same purpose, namely to generate the shamanic state of consciousness. This fact confirms the research results of Adolf Dittrich. He has shown that experiences in changed states of consciousness, and the shamanic state of consciousness is very different from the everyday, are essentially the same - regardless of the pharmacological and / or psychological stimuli with which they are triggered (DITTRICH 1996). From my own experience with the various psychoactive plants, I can confirm that different active ingredients can, but do not have to, evoke the same state of consciousness, e.g. trance. The same drug can cause totally different effects in different people. There are striking differences, especially with Datura drugs (cf. SIEGEL 1981). The same substance can even trigger very different effects in the same person depending on the dosage, set and setting. So that the same, namely the shamanic state of consciousness is triggered, not only the psychoactive substance is required, but also the corresponding intention of the user and the external circumstances. ' The drug experience is largely controlled by the mythological-cosmological matrix of the user and by the ritual that takes place in the outside world. Mythology and cosmology provide the topography or cartography of the shamanic world and point the way in and out. The ritual provides the external framework that facilitates the transition from everyday reality to shamanic reality and back again for the user. The function of plant use largely determines the content of the experience. If they are used for shamanizing, they also create shamanic realities. However, as with all skills, people are gifted differently. Only the most gifted can become shamans. Likewise, all people are differently daring

or brave. Only the bravest of us can become shamans. Fearful people shouldn't face gods and demons. Therefore, in most societies in which there are institutionalized shamans, the use of plants with a visionary effect is embedded in an exclusively ritual framework. The visionary experiences take place in cultural security. The shamanic use of psychoactive plants follows a certain basic pattern, whereby it is relatively unimportant which substance is used. It primarily depends on the form, meaning and purpose (function) of the ritual. The ritual structure follows the pattern that I have called "psychedelic knowledge ritual" (cf. RÄTSCH 1991b):

The fear of psychoactive plants The fear of mind-expanding plants is as old as the Bible. In Genesis, this fear is thematized in the story of the Fall. The fruit of the tree of knowledge makes man God. But since one should only worship one God, one must of course not be on the same level as him (or her?). In many hierarchical cultures that are imperialistically oriented (power instead of knowledge!), Direct mystical, ecstatic or religious experience is heavily regulated, usually even forbidden. The world experience is replaced by a theologically clever religion and monopolized by the state. The other reality, paradise, is administered by bureaucrats with no experience of their own and sold to the needy and those who are longing for ecstasy. Jonathan Ott called this mechanism the Pharmacratic Inquisition (1993). The best example in history of suppressing one's own experience and replacing it with a state monopoly to administer the divine is the Mexican Inquisition. When the Europeans pushed into the New World, they first met shamans who were disparagingly referred to as "magicians" and "black artists". Their gods or auxiliary spirits were degraded as idols, idols and the work of the devil; defamed their holy potions as witches' brew. So it says in a colonial inquisition letter from D. Pedro Nabarre de Isla (issued on June 29, 1620): »As for the introduction of the use of the herb or root called peyote ( As for prophecies of future events, these are superstitions and should be condemned because they are directed against the purity and integrity of our Holy Catholic Faith.This is certain, for neither the aforesaid nor any other herb can have the power or intrinsic quality to produce the consequences claimed, nor can any of them cause the mental images, fantasies, or hallucinations on which the prophecies mentioned are based. In these last, the influences and interventions of the devil are clearly recognized, the real cause of this vice, who first makes use of the natural gullibility of the Indians and their inclination to idolatry and then cuts down many other people who do not fear God enough and not enough Have faith. «Even today the sacred plants of the Indians and / or their ingredients are banned all over the world. The use of peyote, mescaline, psilocybin (active ingredient in Mexican magic mushrooms), DMT, etc. is generally exempt from punishment, but possession or trading with them is prohibited (KÖRNER 1994). Today's narcotics laws sprang from the spirit of the Catholic Inquisition. As long as the Indian sacred plants and substances remain illegal, the Native American war is not over. In general, the drug war, the US drug war, is a continuation of European colonialism and an instrument for criminalizing the Indians and their kindred spirits. This drug phobia is nothing new, as drugs have been considered wild and reprehensible since ancient times (think of the persecution of the Dionysos mystics, witches, alchemists and the hippies). The fear of drugs and the experiences associated with them also runs through all camps of shamanism fans, even in academic circles. There is Mircea Eliade, who rejects the use of drugs to create trance and (archaic) ecstasy as "degenerate shamanism" (ELIADE 1975: 382). There are New Age adherents who claim they can "do it" without drugs. And there are ethnologists who believe that just because "their" shamans seem to go into a trance without pharmacological support, the other shamans - whom they don't even know - don't need drugs. It has been shown, however, that almost all traditional shamans prefer pharmacological stimuli (FÜRST 1972a, HARNER 1973, RIPINSICY-NAXON 1993, RosENBOHivi 1991, VITEBSKY 1995) “Consider the Indians. the drug as food for the soul and revere it because of its wonderful properties. «(DIGUET in WAGNER 1932: 67) When the Christian Europeans encountered the first shamans, they recognized them as dark wizards, sorcerers who connected themselves with the devil and with whose help they fool their tribal brothers. In the older ethnographic literature they are dubbed magicians, witch doctors, medicine men, weathermakers, media, etc. Much of the literature on shamanism has specialized in proving that shamans are deceivers who blind their tribal members with sleight of hand, that at best they act as quacks with irrational, superstitious methods.

In traditional psychiatry and psychoanalytically oriented anthropology, shamans are considered schizophrenics, psychopaths, arctic hysterics, i.e. sick people. It is actually strange that it is precisely these sick people who are busy with the task of healing. In the anti-psychiatry the shaman was transfigured and converted into a savior. Images emerged of »psychiatric utopias presided over by the shaman« (KAKAR 1984: 95). In more recent ethnographic literature, mostly in the direction of cognitive anthropology, the shamans are viewed as what they represent for their community: people who can divine, diagnose and heal because of a calling and because of their special talent for trance. Thereby they keep their community in harmony, preserve the tribal myths and traditions and enable the survival of the people. But the outlawing of psychoactive plants and their effects is not only driven by questionable political laws, but also promoted by established science. Two terms in psychiatry play a central role: psychotomimetic and model psychosis. The first is the term for the substance that a psychosis is supposed to imitate; the second characterizes the experience. It is not portrayed as sacred or mystical, but as pathological. This is reminiscent of ethnologists and religious researchers like George Devereux or Mircea Eliade, who see the shaman as a psychopath or hysteric. Western psychiatry has known and used mind-altering drugs for the last century (GROB 1995, STRASSMAN 1995). The first substance to be tested and used in psychiatry was mescaline. Mescaline was first extracted, chemically determined and synthesized from the Mexican peyote cactus around the turn of the century. At that time, the effect of mescaline on a healthy test person was felt to be a condition that was otherwise only known in psychiatric patients. The idea of ​​the pharmacologically triggered "model psychosis" emerged (cf. LEUNER 1962, HEAMLE et al. 1988). In the course of the last hundred years, other substances with a similar effect have been discovered in the plant world, synthesized in the laboratory and tested on sick people or prison inmates (HERMLE et al. 1993). The concept of model psychosis is nothing more than ethnocentrism. If the inquisitors saw the work of the devil in the psychoactive substances, the psychiatrists recognize psychosis-like states in the holy visions, that is to say "artificially" induced mental illnesses. Well, model psychosis itself has fizzled out at the stake of modern high-tech science. The latest research on the brain activity of real psychotics and of healthy psychedelics has shown by PET that very different areas of the brain are activated in both groups (HERMLE et al. 1992). In our world there is also the prevailing opinion that "drugs" cannot be used meaningfully, but are automatically "abused", so to speak (cf. DOBKIN DE Rios and SMITH 1976). In our culture, a "drug" is still mostly accused of being "addictive" or "dependent". Opinions about it differ extremely. In addition, the “risk of addiction” associated with a substance is often used as the only definition for a drug (also known as “addictive poison”). Since addictive behavior can relate to almost any substance, many foods or stimulants and numerous drugs would be classified as drugs. Many people are "dependent" on chocolate (cf. OTT 1985). Some claim that sugar is also a drug, even an addictive one ... (McKENNA and PIEPER 1993). So are chocolate and sugar fortifying foods, delicious stimulants or addictive drugs? Psychoactive substances have long been used as doping agents in sport (cf. Mammillaria spp.). In modern sports competition, the active ingredients ephedrine and ephedrine derivatives (amphetamines), camphor (cf. Cinnamomum camphora), strychnine and cocaine are mainly used. It goes without saying that the use of doping substances is considered reprehensible, unsportsmanlike, forbidden and strongly ostracized (BERENDONK 1992). But the athletes are like the "cellar shamans", they are always looking for new ways to improve their performance. Recently, preparations made from the cordyceps hose fungus have been used successfully for doping. The sportswoman in question could not be deprived of the victory because it was not a forbidden doping agent, but a dietary supplement.

Research into psychoactive plants science begins with collecting data, facts, objects and ends with organized knowledge. This is what distinguishes all early scientific works. They condense and concentrate the knowledge of their time and their world. Added to this is the human willingness to experiment. He learns through trial and error, and changes his behavior through experience. It is noticeable that all great plant researchers obsessively gathered information and materials and tested as many plants as possible on themselves. How should you judge the effects of a plant if you haven't even seen or touched it, let alone swallowed it? Research into psychoactive plants began with the beginning of botany. Theophrastus (around 370-322 BC), the "father of botany", described numerous psychoactive plants and substances. Systematic science was already practiced in antiquity, which has always been traced back to the poet Homer (9th / 8th century BC):

“But Homer, the ancestor of the sciences and ancient history, who otherwise greatly admired the Church, gave Egypt the glory of valuable herbs (...). At least he tells of a great many Egyptian herbs that had been given to Helena by the Pharaoh's wife, of that famous nepenthes, which caused sadness and forgiveness to be forgotten, and which Helena should have drunk to all mortals. But as the first of all who kept memories, Orpheus reported something worth knowing about herbs. We have already reported the admiration with which Musaios and Hesiod spoke of polium after him. Orpheus and Hesiod recommended incense. (...) After him, Pythagoras, famous for his knowledge, was the first to write a book about the effects of plants, in which he assigned Apollo, Asclepius and generally all immortal gods their discovery and origin. Democritus also wrote such a compilation; both the magicians had visited in Persia, Arabia, Ethiopia and Egypt. «(PLINIUS, Naturgeschichte XXM 1213) In late antiquity, in addition to the natural history of Pliny (23-79 AD), other herbal books were created, the most important of which and up to the most important work in modern times is the medicine theory of Dioscurides (1st century AD). It describes numerous psychoactive plants, their different names, preparations and uses (cf. RÄTSCH 1995a). In the Middle Ages, descriptions of psychoactive plants appear mainly in Arabic and Indian authors (e.g. Avicenna). In Germany, several plants (hemp, henbane, deadly nightshade, etc.) were described by the abbess Hildegard von Bingen (10981179) (MÜLLER 1982). With the beginning of the modern age came the great age of the "fathers of botany". They left voluminous herbal books full of information about psychoactive plants. They include Leonhart-Fuchs (1501-1566), Jacobus Theodorus Tabernaemontanus (1522-1590), Hieronymus Bock (1498-1554), Otto Brunfels (around 1490-1534) and Pierandrea Matthiolus (1500-1577). When the New World was colonized, the Spanish king sent doctors and botanists to Mexico and Peru. You should study the native flora for medicinal uses. A number of compendia were created that were dedicated to the American flora and its healing powers. All of these works contain numerous references to psychoactive plants and their medicinal and psychoactive uses (Pozo 1965 and 1967). Systematic research into psychoactive plants did not begin until the 19th century. Baron Dr. Ernst von Bibra (1806-1878) was a typical private scholar of his time. He was inherently wealthy, earned academic honors, and devoted himself to his studies, preferably within his own four walls. He studied medicine and philosophy in Würzburg, later lived in Nuremberg, but spent most of the time in his Schwebheim estate when he was not traveling. Bibra had politically liberal ideas, was actively involved in the revolution of 1848 and therefore had to leave the country temporarily. He traveled to South America for two years (1849/50). There he not only made acquaintance with the foreign culture, but also with many South American intoxicants, especially coca and guarana. Just a year after he had published his noteworthy travelogue, his groundbreaking book Die narcotic luxury foods and man (Nuremberg 1855) appeared. This work was the first of its kind; it became a real literary sensation. For the first time the psychoactive drugs known at the time were presented in detail and their effects described. The author's self-awareness was always clearly expressed, as was his liberal outlook: “Nowhere in the whole wide world is a country to be found whose human inhabitants do not make use of any narcotic stimulant, indeed almost all of them even have several, and while some of them do Narcotica may only be used by individual tribes, the larger, more prevalent amount of them is accepted by millions of people. "(BIBRA 1855: 390) In his book he reports in detail on coffee, tea, mate, guarana, cocoa, fahan tea, fly agaric, thorn apple , Coca, opium, lactucarium, hashish, tobacco, betel and arsenic. The conclusion of his consideration seems very modern: »But without narcotics, without spirits, because here we want to include these latter, for the sake of similar effects, in the circle of our discussion, as experience has shown, people can live. But by enjoying it, existence becomes a happier one and it is therefore to be approved. «(Page 396 £) So even then the demand for a right to intoxication! Bibra triggered a wave of interdisciplinary drug research in German-speaking countries that has not subsided to this day. For the pharmacist Carl Hartwich (1851-1917), who wrote the most voluminous work to date on psychoactive plants (HARTWICH 1911), it was just as much the most important source of inspiration as it was for the toxicologist Louis Lewin (1850-1929). Even the natural product chemist Albert Hofmann (born 1906) feels a bond with the baron, since Bibra urged the chemists who would come after him to devote themselves to the study of psychoactive plants.

Arthur Heffter (1860-1925) took Bibra literally; he was the first person to try an isolated plant active ingredient, namely mescaline, on himself. That is why today the research method based on self-tests is called "Heffter technology". Almost at the same time as Bibra, the American Mordecai Cubitt Cooke (1825-1913) dealt with human beings, which he poetically called the "Seven Sisters of Sleep" (COOKE 1860, reprint 1989). At the same time, the Scot James F. Johnston conducted research on the chemistry of everyday life and the substances that are absorbed enough. He published his work in the same year as Bibra (1855). In Italy, Paolo Mantegazza (1831-1910) can be regarded as a pioneer of drug research (SAMORINI 1995b). In 1871 in Milan he published his 1200-page main work Quadri della natura umana: Feste ed ebbrezze, "Images of human nature: Feste und Räusche". Mantegazza was devoted to coca and had already published a sensational work in 1858 with the title Sulle virtü igieniche e medicinali Bella coca e sugli alimenti nervosi in generale, "On hygienic and medicinal virtues of coca and nerve food in general". Like Bibra and Hartwich, Mantegazza was interested in all stimulants and intoxicants and was guided and inspired by them throughout his life. Since his writings appeared almost exclusively in Italian, they received far less international attention than the publications by Bibra, Johnston, and Cooke. Mantegazza's classification of luxury foods is particularly interesting. He divided the "nerve food" into three families: 1. Alcoholic foods with the two strains of ferments and distillates; 2. alkaloid foods containing the strains of caffeine and narcotics; to the narcotics he counted opium, hashish, kava-kava, betel, toadstool, coca, ayahuasca and tobacco; 3. the aromatic foods (sage, oregano, rosemary, cinnamon, pepper, chilli, etc.). The psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926), who published his medico-psychological book About the Influence of Simple Psychological Processes by Certain Medicines in 1882, took a different path than Bibra. In the same year, the dream researcher and professor of philosophy Heinrich Spitta published the revised second edition of his work The sleep and dream states of the human soul with special consideration of its relationship to the psychic alienations. Both books dealt with the chemical means with which changed conditions can be triggered, each in their own way. Shortly thereafter, the neurologist Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), the "father of dream theory," published his work on coca, through which that Coke became fashionable. This pioneering work has led to psychopharmacology or pharmacopsychology, an area in which psychiatrists, pharmacologists, pharmacognosticists and chemists have dealt: "Pharmacopsychology is the study of the influence of chemical substances supplied to the body" (LiPPERT 1972: 10). The most important chemist in research history is the Swiss Albert Hofmann. He not only invented LSD while researching ergot alkaloids, but also discovered the active ingredients in Mexican magic mushrooms and other Indian magic drugs. In the field of structure-activity relationships, the American chemist of Russian origin Alexander T. Shulgin has particularly distinguished himself. In ethnology or ethnology, research into the use of psychoactive plants did not actually begin until this century.l 'The pioneers of psychoactive ethnology include Pablo Blas Reko, Weston La Barre, Johannes Wilbert, Peter Furst and Michael Harner. The role of Carlos Castaneda is quite controversial today. Ethnobotany only began to establish itself as a special branch of science towards the end of the last century. The term was introduced by John W. Harshberger (1869-1929) in 1895. Both ethnologists and botanists have specialized in ethnobotany. A pioneer of ethnobotany was the Briton Richard Spruce (18171893). The "father of psychoactive ethnobotany" is the former Harvard professor and director of the Botanical Museum at Harvard Richard Evans Schultes. His research in Mexico and South America led to the discovery of numerous psychoactive plants (DAvis 1996). Many of Schultes' students have become well-known ethnobotanists or ethnopharmacologists: Timothy Plowman (1944-1989), Wade Davis, Mark J. Plotkin, Tom Lockwood. Above all, the American botanist William Emboden has created a creative bridge to art history and has published essentials about it. Ethnomycology, the research into the cultural uses of mushrooms, was founded by the banker R. Gordon Wasson (1898-1986). In a sense, the natural product chemist Jonathan Ott has become Wasson's successor. Many other discoveries in ethnomycology are due to Paul Stamets, Gaston Guzman and Jochen Gartz. As a branch of ethnobotany and ethnomedicine, ethnopharmacology has developed over the past thirty years. It is a young science and has strong interdisciplinary traits. Ethnopharmacology is the study of the cultural use of pharmacologically active substances and their cognitive interpretation. This encyclopedia is also to be classified here.

Finally, the "cellar shaman" should be thought of. Amateurs and hobbyists are now named who experiment with psychoactive plants and preparations at home and sometimes make amazing discoveries, which are then willingly taken up and pursued by science. Almost all of the research on ayahuasca analogues is due to the "cellar shamans". All major discoveries in the field of psychoactive plants, their chemistry and pharmaceutical use were made by German-speaking researchers. - One wonders whether a need of the German "people's soul" is being expressed here. Why is there such a concentration on German-speaking soil? Should the Germanic god Wotan still be at work here? Wotan is the god of knowledge and at the same time the restless shaman who does everything to satisfy his immeasurable thirst for knowledge. It was he who stole the mead of inspiration and brought it to people (METZNER 1994b).

Psychoactive plants as culture-creating factors The use and also the need for psychoactive substances is very old. Some authors believe that the beginnings lie somewhere in the Paleolithic (RIPINSKY-NAXON 1989, WESTERMEYER 1988). Apparently there was a connection with shamanism very early on (LA BARRE 1972). I would doubt that shamanism is an original religion, but I think that the altered states of consciousness or visions triggered by psychoactive plants have led to considerable cultural innovations. You absorb a substance from the environment and sink into an iconoclasm, see visions, have hallucinations, lots of images that you could never imagine before - and yet they are familiar to you, so to speak primeval. In addition, they are complex, multi-layered, appear in unbelievable sequences and go into so much detail that you can't get rid of the feeling of having landed somewhere on a molecular level or somewhere far out, in the depths of an infinite universe. Where do these images come from? Do they arise in the human brain through the material interaction of the molecules coming from outside with the brain stem? Can we look through the substances absorbed from the outside into realities that are actually outside of us' and for which we usually have no perception? - The miracle or the mystery remains the same! No matter where the pictures come from, they are there, can be perceived, are reality that can be experienced. Many cultures and many researchers have addressed these questions. Although no one was able to give a definitive answer, hypotheses and positions have emerged that can be divided into two camps. Namely, on the one hand the assumption that all reality is only the projection of our consciousness or our brain, and on the other hand the view that there are numerous or even infinitely many different realities in the external world. Shamanism can only be taken seriously if you join the second position. Because if one assumes that the shaman only flies into his own skull, he could not find any stolen souls, free them and bring them back. The inner images and visions evoked by psychoactive plants have probably influenced human art since the Stone Age (BIEDERMANN 1984, BRAEM 1994). African rock art is interpreted as an expression of changed states of consciousness, probably triggered by mushrooms or the like (LEWIS-WILLIAMS and DowsoN 1988 and 1993). Native American rock art was also inspired by psychoactive plant experiences (WELLMANN 1978 and 1981). The imagery of Hieronymus Bosch has also been interpreted as drug trips. The art of the 19th century would be inconceivable without psychoactive substances (KurFER 1996a and 1996b). Many surrealistic images, especially those by Max Ernst, Rene Magritte and Salvador Dali, appear to the viewer as "drug images" or remind them of their own intoxication experiences. Surrealism seems to have been shaped by hemp consumption. In the Surrealist Manifesto of 1924, the philosophy of Surrealism is defined: "Surrealism is based on the belief in the higher reality of certain forms of association that were previously neglected, in the omnipotence of dreams, in the purposeless play of thinking" (BRETON 1968: 26 £ ) The founder of surrealism compares this art form with the effects of psychoactive substances: »Surrealism does not allow those who devote themselves to it to drop it when they like. Everything indicates that it works in the manner of stimulants on the mind; like these, it creates a certain state of need and is able to drive people into terrible revolts. Once again, if you will, we are standing in front of a very artificial paradise, and our inclination there falls just as rightly under Baudelaire's criticism as any other. The analysis of the mysterious effects and special pleasures that it can convey must, under certain aspects, appear to be a new vice that surrealism should not only suit a few; just as hashish can satisfy all picky people, such an analysis must be undertaken within this investigation.

With the surrealist images it is like with those images in the opium frenzy, which humans no longer evoke, but which “spontaneously, tyrannically offer themselves to him. He is unable to turn her away; because the will has become powerless and no longer controls its abilities. ”(Baudelaire) The question remains whether one has ever“ evoked ”the images.” (BRETON 1968: 34) In the artistic scene around fantastic realism there was experimentation with psychoactive Substances apparently an important experience. But only a few of the artists have publicly acknowledged this. Ernst Fuchs even denied his drug experiences, which he had previously published, in one of his biographies (MÜLLEREBELINC 1992). However, it seems that the use of hashish and marijuana with most artists does not necessarily affect the creative process, but rather as a kind of concentration enhancer, in the sense of the Indian meditation practice with hashish (e.g. Gustav Klimt). Albert Paris Gütersloh, himself an avowed stoner, presumably assesses the situation realistically when he says: »Every [artist] of my generation has made his acquaintance with hashish, and when I go through the academy and sniff, I'm sure: too everyone in my class at least. Is that why we all have hash artists? «(According to BEHR 1995) In the ethnological field there are some examples of the direct production of cultural goods or artefacts that have arisen through visionary experiences with psychoactive plants and products (ANDRITZKY 1995). The wool yarn pictures of the Huichol are representations of peyote experiences. Ayahuasca visions are the subject of numerous paintings (Ayahuasca paintings).

Acacia spp. Acacia Family Leguminosae: Mimosaceae (Fabaceae) (Butterfly Family) Synonyms Many species of the genus Acacia were previously assigned to the genera Mimosa, Pithecolobium, Senegalia or Racosperma. On the other hand, some species previously described under the generic name Acacia are now known as Anadenanthera. (see Anadenanthera colubrina) and Mimosa (see Mimosa tenuilora, Mimosa spp.) have been reclassified. General The genus Acacia comprises 750 to 800 species (according to other data approx. 130) that are distributed in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide (HARNISCHFEGER 1992). They are mostly medium-sized trees with pinnate, rarely smooth leaves, tufted flower balls and pod-like fruits. Some species come onto the market as cut flowers under the name "Mimosa". From Acacia farnesiana (L.) WILLD. an essential oil is obtained, which is used as a fragrance in aromatherapy and perfume production (BÄRTELS 1993: 89 *). Some acacias have been used as carrier substances (gum arabic) for compound medicines and incense since ancient times. Some species serve as an additive to psychoactive products (betel bites, beer, balche ', pituri; for pulque see Agave spp.). Several types are suitable for making ayahuasca analogs. Numerous Australian Acacia species (A. maidenii, A. phlebophylla, A. simplicifolia) contain higher concentrations of NN-DMT in their bark and / or their leaves (FITZGERALD and SIOUMIS 1965, OTT 1994: 85f. *, ROVELLI and VAUGHAN 1967 ). Acacia angustifolia (MILL.) KUNTZE [syn. Acacia angustissima (MILZ.) KUNTZE, Acacia filiciana WI LLD.] Pulque tree, Timbre The root of this Mexican acacia provides a possibly psychoactive additive to pulque, which is derived from Agave spp. obtained fermented drink. The Aztecs called the little tree ocpatl, "pulque drug"; today it is still called palo de pulque in Mexican Spanish, "tree of pulque". Acacia albicans KUNTH [syn. Pithecolobium albicans (KUNTH) BENTH.] Used as a pulque additive. Acacia baileyana F. VON MUELL. This Australian acacia is found in New South Wales. It contains psychoactive ß-phenethylamines, including tetrahydroharman, and is possibly suitable as an MAO-inhibiting additive for the preparation of ayahuasca analogues. Acacia campylacantha HIGHEST. ex A. RICH [syn. Acacia polyacantha WILLI). ssp. campylacantha] The leaves of this ancient species contain N, N-DMT and other tryptamines (WAHBA KHALIL and ELKEIR 1975). The bark is traditionally used in West Africa as a psychoactive additive to beer called dolo. '; It is brewed from millet (Sorghum spp., Penisetum spp.), Sometimes with the addition of honey. The alcohol content is usually 2 to 4%, with the addition of honey up to 8 to 10% (VOLTZ 1981: 176). It is drunk as a libation in sacrificial ceremonies and other rites as well as in everyday life. The properties of the dolo beer are highly praised: »Dolo gives strength and courage and brings joy of life. When doing arduous work, it is customary to drink dolo. The farmer who clears a piece of wilderness, the blacksmith who works hard on the anvil, the warrior who prepares for the fight, the woman who has recently given birth, the dancer who will wear the heavy, holy mask ... all get strength and courage through dolo offered by their mother, wife or sister. «(VOLTZ 1981: 178) Acacia catechu (L. £) WILLD. - Catechu tree This type of acacia, which comes from India, Indonesia and Malaysia and grows up to 20 meters high, is also known under the names Cutch tree, Khair, Kath, Katha, Khadira and Ercha. An extract is obtained from the heartwood by boiling it with water for twelve hours and thickening it, which is called Catechii, Katechu, Catechu nigruni, Extractlim catechtt, Succus catechis, Terra catechii, Terra japonica, Pegit, Black catechu, Cutch, Cachoii, Katha, Khair , Terra giapponica, Khadira or Cato de pegii is known. There are essentially four common commercial varieties: Pegu Catechu (= Bombay Catechu), the most common variety, Bengali Catechu, Malacca Catechu and Camou Catechu (HARNISCHFEGER 1992: 31). Catechu is an ancient Indian drug and is still officinal (DAB6) in our country. In Vedic times the bark of Acacia catechii was called sotttcitvak and associated with soma. Catechu is odorless in itself, has an astringent bitter taste that slowly turns sweet. Catechu is largely water-soluble and can be crystallized out again. It consists of flavonols or glycosides (fisetin; quercetin [cf. Psidium guajava, Vaccinium uliginosum], quercitrin) and flavanoids (catechins, catechin tannins) and red pigments (HARNISCHFEGER 1992: 31). Catechu is therefore responsible for the red coloration of the saliva when chewing the betel bite (ATKINSON 1989: 7750. In India and Nepal, Catechu is used for dyeing and tanning and in ethnomedicine for tonic, for digestive disorders and skin diseases. Catechu, however, has the greatest economic importance as (Coloring) additive to betel bites (STORRS 1990: 5 ') In Indian medicine, catechu is a component of formulations for the treatment of ulcers on the oral mucosa, sore throats and toothache

(HARNISCHFEGER 1992: 32). Catechu is a pronounced tanning drug that is suitable for the treatment of inflammation on the mucous membranes and diarrhea (PAHLOw 1993: 453). Catechu has no psychoactive effects of its own, it is just an important additive to a psychoactive product; in this, however, it could have synergistic effects. Acacia confusa MERR. This acacia species contains NN-DMT and can be used as an additive for ayahuasca analogues. Acacia cornigera (L.) WILLI). [syn. Acacia spadici gera CHAM. et BAD. ] - Bull horn acacia This showy acacia has strong, paired spines that are hollow and inhabited by ants. The small tree (also called akunte ') is called subin, "dragon" in Maya. It plays an important role in the magical preparation of the ritual drink Balche '. Parts of the tree may have been added to the drink earlier. The bark may contain NN-DMT. The Maya of San Antonio / Belize use root and bark against snakebites. The root is drunk as a tea as an aphrodisiac and remedy for impotence. Other preparations are used to treat asthma and headaches (ARVIGO and BALICK 1994: 81 *). Acacia maidenii F. VON MUELL. - Maiden's wattle The whole plant, a beautiful, upright tree with a silvery sheen, contains tryptamines. The bark contains 0.36% NN-DMT (FITZGERALD and SIouMIs 1967). The leaves can be used as a DMT-supplying component of ayahuasca analogues (OTT 1993: 246'0. This acacia can be cultivated well in temperate zones (e.g. in California or southern Europe). Acacia nubica BENTHAM - Nubian acacia The leaves of this African acacia contain, among other things, NN -DMT (WAHBA KHALIL and ELKEIR 1975). However, the concentration does not seem to be sufficient to produce ayahuasca analogues. Acacia phlebophylla F. VON MUELL. - Buffalo sallow wattle This Australian species is rich in NN-DMT. The leaves contain 0.3 % NN-DMT (RoVELLI and VAGHAN 1967); they can be used as a DMT-supplying component of ayahuasca analogues (OTT 1993: 246'0. This acacia is perhaps the rarest species of its genus. It occurs only on Mount Buffalo. Acacia polyantha WILLD. [Syn. Acacia surna (ROXB.) BUCH.-HAM.] - White catechu tree The resin of this Indian acacia is sometimes used as a catechu or catechu substitute for betel bites (see above) apparently hold NN-DMT. Interestingly, its Sanskrit name is somavalkah and connects this plant with the god potion Soma. The Malayam name somarayattoli also suggests this (WARRIER et al. 1993: 26 *). Acacia retinodes POOR. - Swamp wattle This Australian acacia, which occurs mainly in swampy and humid areas, contains nicotine (BOCK 1994: 93 *). A traditional use has not yet become known. Acacia senegal (L.) WILLD. [syn. Acacia verek GUILL. et PERROTT, Senegalia senegal (L.) BRITT.] Gum arabic tree This African acacia is particularly important as a supplier of Arabic gum or gum arabic, which, among other things, serves as a binding agent for incense. The leaves contain NN-DMT (WAHBA KHALIL and ELKEIR 1975), but only in a very low concentration. They are likely not very well suited for making ayahuasca analogs. Acacia simplicifolia DRUCE The trunk bark of this acacia, which is widespread in Australia and New Caledonia, is said to contain up to 3.6% alkaloids; 40% of these are MMT, 22.5% NN-DMT (= 0.81% total DMT concentration) and 12.7% 2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline. The leaves contain up to 1% NN-DMT, as well as MMT, N-formyl-MMT and 2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-ß-carboline (PouPAT et al. 1976). The bark and leaves are suitable for making ayahuasca analogues. Acacia spp.- Wattle According to reports by "cellar shamans", several acacias called wattle in Australia definitely contain NN-DMT in bark and leaves. It should be possible to prepare smokable extracts that produce clear tryptamine hallucinations. The Aborigines charred some Acacia species to ashes and added them to the pituri. Market forms and regulations Acacia seeds are occasionally offered in specialist ethnobotanical shops. Gum arabic can be bought over the counter and in pharmacies. Literature See also entry under Ayahuasca analogs

CLARCE-LEWIS, J.W. and L.l. PORTER 1972 "Phytochemical Survey of the Heartwood Flavonoids of Acacia Species from Arid Zones of Australia", Australia Journal of Chemistry 25: 1943-1955. FITZGERALD, J. S. and A. A. SIOUMIS 1965, "Alkaloids of the Australian Leguminosae, V: The Occurence of Methylated Tryptamines in Acacia maidenii F. VON MUELL.", Australian Journal of Chemistry 18: 433-434. HARNISCHFEGER, Götz 1992 "Acacia", in: Hagers Handbook of Pharmaceutical Practice (5th edition), Vol. 4: 26-43, Berlin: Springer. POUPAT, Christiane, Alain AHOND and Thlerry SEVENET 1976 "Alcaloides de Acac ia sinlplici /" lici ", Phytochemistry 15: 2019-2020. ROVELLI, B. and GN VAUGHAN 1967" Alkaloids of Acacia, 1: N, N-Dimethyltryptamine in Acacia phlebophylla F. VON MUELL. ", Australian Journal of Chernistry 20: 1299-1300. VOLTZ, Michel 1981" Millet beer in West Africa ", in: G. VÖLGER (ed.), Rausch und Reality, Vol. 1: 174-181, Cologne: Rautenstrauch-Joest-Musuem. WAHBA KHALIL, SK and YM. ELKHEIR 1975 "Dimethyltryptamine from the Leaves of Certain Acacia Species of Northern Sudan", Voydia 38 (2): 176-177.

Aconitum ferox Blauer Eisenhut Family Ranunculaceae (buttercup family); Tribe Helleboreae forms and subspecies Acottitlittl ferox is perhaps a subspecies or variation of Aconitum napellus. In Tibetan medicine, several forms of aconltunl 1'Crox are distinguished on the basis of their pharmacological properties (ABIS 1992: 233 *). Synonyms Acofiitlitrt ferox L. Acoriitlirrt napellus var. Ferox Aconitlani virorltrn DON L) elpllitiilitit _f erox BAILL. Popular names Aconite, Atis, Ativish (Nepali "very poisonous"), Ativisha (Sanskrit "poison"), Bachnag (Persian), Bachnäg (Hindi), Bikh, Bis, Bis-h, Bish (Arabic), Black aconite, Blue aconite, Bong-nag, Bong nga, GSang-dzlnl, Himalayan monkshood, Indian aconite, Jädwar, Kalakuta, Mlthavls (Hindi), MOnk ~ s hood, Nang-dzim, Nilo bikh, Phyi-dzim, Singya, Sman-chen ( Tibetan »the great medicine«), Valsanabhi (Malay), Vasanavi (Tamil), Vatsamabhah (Sanskrit), Vatsanabha, Vatsanabhi (Malayam), Visha (Sanskrit »poison«), Wolfbane used as an arrow poison in ancient India (cf. Aconitum spp.). The Vedic and later Sanskrit scriptures attest to this. However, the poisoned arrows were not used - as originally - for hunting, but for waging war (BISSET and MAIARS 1984: 19). Acorlittittl ferox was mentioned under the name vatsanabha in the Ayurvedic writings of Shushruta, the Shlishrlttasaniylitci (approx. 300 AD). Nowadays, Acoriitittri chasniatithum is usually traded under the name vatsanabha (BISSET and MAIARS 1984: 13). In the 10th century the plant was described under the name bish by the Persian doctor Alheroo. The Europeans first got to know Aconituni ferox during stays in Nepal in the 19th century. In the last century trade flourished in Acotiitiitti ferox tubers, which were brought from Lhasa to Ladakh via Le (Mustang) (LAUFER 1991: 57). Distribution The blue monkshood occurs in Nepal, Kashmir (northern India), Garhwal, Sikkim and Bhutan at an altitude of 2000 to 3000 meters (MANANUHAR 1980: 7 "). It is a typical Himalayan plant and has already been observed at an altitude of 3600 meters (POLUNIN and STAINTON 1985: 5 *). Even at 4500 meters it should still be able to thrive (PABST 1887 III: 7 *). Cultivation Propagation is done by seeds. They can simply be scattered or grown in seed beds. The blue monkshood likes to have a stony or rocky one Subsurface and can also thrive in cracks and cavities between stones. Appearance The perennial herb with tuberous roots is up to a meter high. The lower, long-stalked leaves are deeply indented and pinnate. The leaves become smaller towards the top and their stems always At the end of the upright, smooth stem, the helmet-shaped, blue-violet flowers stand like grapes. The flower stalks grow out of the leaf axils. The fruit is egg ne five-lobed capsule, funnel-shaped, open at the top. The blue monkshood blooms in the Himalayas during the monsoons (from July to September; at higher altitudes until October). The annually renewing tubers have a dark brown bark and are yellowish inside. Aconitum ferox looks very similar to Aconitum napellus. However, it is a bit smaller and stocky and has fewer flowers that are further apart.

Aconiturn ferox can easily be combined with Aconitufn lreterophyllUni WALL. ex ROYLE, who is called Bachriak, Atis or Prativisa, can be confused (BlssET and MAZARS 1984: 15). However, Aconitum heterophyllum has heart-shaped leaves with a serrated edge, while Aconitum ferox has the same deeply indented and pinnate leaves as Aconitum napellus. The blue monkshood can also be confused with the also blue flowering species Aconititrn spicatum (BRÜHL) STAUE, which is widespread in the Himalayas (POLUNIN and STAINTON 1985: 61.Drug - root tuber (Tubera Aconiti ferocis, Bischwurzel) - - herb preparation and dosage For use In Ayurvedic medicine, after harvesting, the tubers are placed in milk or urine from sacred cows to "cleanse" them. This removes the strong poison from the roots. Milk is said to detoxify better (WARRIER et al. 1993: 441.'1 For the external Used in neuralgia, the tuber is mashed into a paste. For tantric and psychoactive purposes, of course, the root is not detoxified. It is simply dried and crushed and smoked in smoke mixtures, usually with ganja (cannabis indica). The leaves are dried and smoked Aconitum ferox is the most poisonous plant in the Himalayas; it can very easily lead to fatal poisoning! 3 to 6 mg of aconitine, equivalent to just a few grams of the dried or even fresh plant material, can kill an adult. Ritual use Among the Indian tantrics there is an extreme sect, the so-called Aghoris. You are walking the left path, which regards sexuality and drugs as important methods of expanding consciousness. The Aghoris take the plants associated with Shiva (hemp, datura metel, opium from Papaver somniferum) and poisons (cobra poison, mercury, arsenic) in order to experience the divine consciousness of their master. Aghoris produce mixtures of different plants for their large smoke pipes (chilam). A mixture for »advanced« consists of ganja (flowers of Cannabis indica) and Aconitum ferox roots (SVOBODA 1993: 175) Shiva is the Hindu god of intoxicants and poisons. According to mythology, at the beginning of the world he tried all poisons on himself. That made him blue, as blue as the flowers of the blue monkshood. The tantric assimilates himself to God in that he too ingests all poisons and survives successfully (according to the motto "What does not kill me makes me strong."). In another version of this story, when the primal ocean was whisked or the sea of ​​milk was churned (sarfliidrarrlatliana), not only did the sacred cow come to light, but the essence of all poisons also boiled up. The gods, frozen in fear, hurried to the Kailash, where the meditating Shiva sat. They asked him for help. Shiva took the poison in his hand and drank it. His wife Parvati became afraid for him and squeezed her husband's neck. As a result, the poison got stuck in the throat and turned it completely blue. Hence Shiva is also called Nilakanta, "blue neck". By doing this, Shiva saved all creatures from poisonous death. Only some of the poison has dripped from his hand over the Hlmalaya. It still flows through the veins of the blue monkshood and other poisonous plants. Artifacts There are numerous portraits of Shiva in Hindu art. He is often depicted with blue skin. Sometimes just his throat is blue. In the Saradatilaka Tantra Shiva is described in his form as a "blue neck" as follows: He shines like a myriad of rising suns, has a glowing crescent moon in his matted, long hair. Its four arms are decorated with snakes. He has five heads with three eyes each, is only dressed in a tiger skin and armed with his trident. Perhaps this is what the plant spirit of Aconitiirrl ferox looks like. Aconiturn ferox is depicted on Tibetan medical thankas along with other species (including Aconitum napellus). On the picture of the Tibetan medicine tree, a leaf is consecrated to him, on which the extraction of a medicinal butter from the "Great Medicine" is shown (ABIS 1992: 179, 233). Medical application In Ayurvedic medicine, the "cleaned" tubers are used for neuralgia, painful inflammation, cough, asthma, bronchitis, indigestion, colic, heart failure, leprosy, skin diseases, paralysis, gout, diabetes, fever and exhaustion (WARRIER et al. 1993 : 41 ff. *). These and other monkshood species (Aconitu »t lieterophylliirrt, AConltllnl balfi? Tirii STAPF; cf. Aconitum spp.) Of the Himalayan region are widely used in Tibetan medicine. The roots are used as a remedy for colds and "cold"; the herb is a remedy for illnesses caused by "heat". Aconitum ferox also means sman-chen in Tibetan, "great medicine"; the ground tubers, mixed with bezoar stones, are used as a universal antidote. The roots are also used to treat cancer ulcers (LAUFER 1991: 57). Great Medicine is also touted as a cure for demonic possession (ARIS 1992: 77 *). In Nepalese folk medicine, the blue monkshood is used for leprosy, cholera and rheumatism (MANANDHAR 1980: 7 *).

Ingredients The whole plant contains the diterpenoid alkaloids aconitine and pseudoaconitine'S (MEHRA and PURI 1970). The tuber is richest in active ingredients and therefore the most dangerous (see Aconitum napellus). Effect In Ayurvedic medicine, the tuber has sweet, narcotic, numbing, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, nerve-strengthening, appetite-stimulating, digestive, stimulating, anaphrodizing, calming and antipyretic effects (WARRIER et al. 1993: 41 *). The effect of a tantric smoke mixture with monkshood is said to be extreme. Even experienced tantrics strongly warn against its use (cf. Aconitum napellus). Market forms and regulations The seeds can occasionally be bought in flower shops. Literature See also entries under Aconitum napellus, Aconitum spp., Hexensalben BissET, N.G. and G. MAZARs 1984 "Arrow Poisons in South Asia, Part I: Arrow Poisons in Ancient India", Journal of Ethnopharmacology 12: 1-24. MEHRA, PN. and H.S. PURI 1970 "Pharmacognostic Investigations an Aconites of" ferox "Group", Research Bulletin of the Punjab University 21: 473-493. LAUFER, Heinrich 1991 Tibetan Medicine, Ulm: Fabri Verlag (reprint from 1900). RAU, Wilhelm 1994 Old Indian arrow poison, Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag. SVOBODA, Robert E. 1993 Aghora: At the Left Hand of God, New Delhi: Rupa.