Why do drugs sometimes cause drowsiness?

When drugs keep you awake

Selected literature

<typolist type="1">

Popp, R., Geisler, P., Diagnosis of sleep disorders and daytime sleepiness. Pharm. Us. Time 36, No. 3 (2007) 180-185.

Jenni, O. G., et al., Sleep duration from ages 1 to 10 years: Variability and stability in comparison with growth. Pediatrics 120 (2007) e769-e776.

Zulley, J., The Physiology of Sleep. Pharm. Us. Time 36 (2007) 176-179.

Lemmer, B., Chronopharmacology. Daily rhythms and drug effects. Knowledge Verlagsges., 3rd edition 2004.

Arendt, J., Melatonin: Characteristics, Concerns, and Prospects. J. Biol. Rhythms 20 (2005) 291-303.

Pandi-Perumal, S. R., et al., Melatonin: Natures most versatile biological signal? FEBS J. 273 (2006) 2813-2838.

Dubocovich, M. L., Melatonin receptors: role on sleep and circadian rhythm regulation. Sleep Med. 8, Suppl. 3 (2007) 34-42.

Wade, A., Downie, S., Prolonged-release melatonin for the treatment of insomnia: targeting quality of sleep and morning alertness. Aging Health 4 (2008) 11-21.

Yamada, Y., et al., Prediction of sleep disorders induced by beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agents based on receptor occupancy. J. Pharmacokinet. Biopharm. 23 (1995) 131-145.

Steinhilber, D., Melatonin, Melatonin Receptor Agonists, and Tryptophan as Sleep Aids. Pharm. Us. Time 36 (2007) 213-217.

Möller, M., et al., Localization and diurnal expression of mRNA encoding the beta1-adrenoceptor in the rat pineal gland: an in situ hybridization study. Cell Tissue Res. 288 (1997) 279-284.

Schomerus, C., Korf, H.W., Mechanisms regulating melatonin synthesis in the mammalian pineal organ. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 1057 (2005) 372-383.

Langer, S. Z., Presynaptic regulation of the release of catecholamines. Pharmacol. Rev. 32, No. 4 (1980) 337-362.

Wright, K. P. Jr, et al., Acute effects of bright light and caffeine on nighttime melatonin and temperature levels in women taking and not taking oral contraceptives. Brain Res. 873 (2000) 310-317.

Pal, D., Mallick, B. N., Role of noradrenergic and GABA-ergic inputs in pedunculopontine tegmentum for regulation of rapid eye movement sleep in rats. Neuropharmacology 51 (2006) 1-11.

Benkert, Hippius, Compendium of Psychiatric Pharmacotherapy. In: Holsboer, F., Gründer, G., Benkert, O. (Ed.), Handbuch der Psychopharmakotherapie. 1st edition, Springer, Heidelberg 2008.

Palazidou, E., et al., Noradrenaline uptake inhibition increases melatonin secretion, a measure of noradrenergic neurotransmission, in depressed patients. Psychol. Med. 22 (1992) 309-315.

Härtter, S., et al., Differential effects of fluvoxamine and other antidepressants on the biotransformation of melatonin. J. Clin. Psychopharmacol. 21 (2001) 167-174.

Hobson, J.A., Sleep and dreaming: Induction and mediation of REM sleep by cholinergic mechanisms. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 2 (1992) 759-763.

Volkow, N.D., et al., Sleep deprivation decreases binding of (11C) -raclopride to dopamine D2 / D3 receptors in the human brain. J. Neurosci. 28 (2008) 8454-8461.

Kravitz, H. M., et al., Sleep disturbance during the menopausal transition in a multi-ethnic community sample of women. Sleep, 31 (2008) 979-990.

Press release on the 9th annual conference of the Neuroendocrinology Working Group of the German Society for Endocrinology, January 2006.

Baker, F.C., et al., Oral contraceptives alter sleep and raise body temperature in young women. Pflugers Arch. 442 (2001) 729-737.