Is imagination really intelligence

76 6 In order to get one step closer to the aim of the book, to train the emotional awareness of people who play or are active in sports, we present a catalog of activities below. The various activities are intended to help develop and promote emotional intelligence in the context of and through participation in sports. Specifically, activities are shown that can sensitize and improve one's own emotional experience. In addition, the activities can help to recognize the influence of emotions in sport and to learn how to deal with emotions in a helpful way. Although some of the activities presented promote several emotional competencies, it was defined for each activity which emotional competence is focussed on, which group size and age it is suitable for, and how the activity takes place. The activities overview table (Tab. 8) gives an overview of the activities described in detail below. Before the various activities and possible variations are described in detail, some general points should be emphasized: For most activities it is advantageous to get an idea of ​​the participants or groups to be trained in advance, based on their previous knowledge. For example, a specific query can be made beforehand, e.g. B. can be carried out using the Emotional Competency Questionnaire (Chapter 4). ACTIVITIES FOR TRAINING EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE 17_08_11_Emotionale_Intellektiven_im_Sport_aw.indd 76 11.08.17 16:09 77 Activities for training emotional intelligence It can also be useful to convey basic, theoretical information about emotions in the sense of psychoeducation. Psychoeducation stands for conveying psychologically sound knowledge, in this case emotions and emotional intelligence, which can be necessary or help to better understand psychologically oriented activities and thus support positive effects. The transfer of knowledge regarding emotions and emotional intelligence can be playful to different degrees, depending on the age and previous experience of the people. In the case of children and adolescents, teaching should be playful and using concrete examples from the world of children and adolescents. When it comes to promoting emotional intelligence, this can be discussed in Chap. 2 presented three-part model of emotional intelligence, which differentiates between knowledge level, skill level, and property level. This model serves as a guide to setting the right milestones and successfully completing the various steps, so that you can move from the basics of knowledge to acquiring skills to solidifying qualities in dealing with emotions. The activities presented are structured by the following questions: A. Which competencies of emotional intelligence are mainly trained with this activity? B. How old should people typically be with whom this activity is being performed? C. How many people can this activity be done with? D. What material is required? E. How does this activity work? Q. What is the primary goal of this activity? G. When was this activity successfully completed? For some selected activities, additional background information is described which, for example, explains the scientific basis of the activity or offers further options for variation of the activities. 17_08_11_Emotionale_Intellektiven_im_Sport_aw.indd 77 11.08.17 16:09 Emotional Intelligence in Sport 78 6.1 ACTIVITY “EMOTIONAL BALLS” Which emotional skills are trained with this activity? Identification of one's own emotions and the emotions of others. How old should people be with whom this activity is being performed? > 6 How many people can this activity be carried out with? > 4 Which material is required? 16 balls are required for four people (e.g. tennis balls). Before starting, the players will draw the emotions as emoticons with markers on the balls; the number of positive and negative emotions should be the same. How does this activity work? The activity “Emotion Balls” requires coordination and communication. The task is to match emotion balls, on which emotional facial expressions are painted, to the correct emotion. To do this, the group stands in a circle and everyone receives a ball. These are thrown in turn to the neighbor. Gradually more balls are added, so that after a while everyone has two balls at the same time. The task is that balls with positive emotions can only be thrown and caught with the right hand, while balls with negative emotions can only be thrown and caught with the left hand. Fig. 7: The participants stand opposite each other in a circle and throw the balls with different emotions to each other. 17_08_11_Emotionale_Intellektiven_im_Sport_aw.indd 78 11.08.17 16:09 79 Activities for training emotional intelligence You have three lives in total. If you make a mistake, you lose a life and after losing your last life you are eliminated for this round and have to carry out certain tasks (e.g. running laps, jumping rope) until the round is finished. What is the aim of this activity? The aim is that the emotions on the balls are recognized. They also need to be assigned to positive and negative emotions. When was this activity successfully completed? The activity is successful when the emotions are recognized correctly and, as a result, the right emotion ball is caught with the right hand. How can this activity be varied? The hand that was used with either the positive or negative emotion can be changed after a certain period of time, so that, for example, the positive emotion balls must be thrown with the left hand and negative emotion balls with the right hand. Fig. 8: For the activity "Emotion balls", the emotions must first be drawn on the balls as emoticons. This can be implemented as a team handicraft campaign, for example. 17_08_11_Emotionale_Intellektiven_im_Sport_aw.indd 79 11.08.17 16:09 Emotional Intelligence in Sport 80 6.1.1 VARIATION: "EMOTIONAL TEACHER" Which emotional skills are trained with this activity? Identifying the emotions of others. How old should people be with whom this activity is being performed? > 6 How many people can this activity be carried out with? > 4 Which material is required? 16 balls are required for four people (e.g. tennis balls). Before starting, the players will paint the emotions as emoticons with markers on the balls; the number of positive and negative emotions should be the same. How does this activity work? With the variation "Emotion Relay", the group is divided into teams of two. They then sprint against each other to a point where an emotion ball has to be taken out of a pocket. Only positive emotion balls may be collected. With this ball you have to sprint back to the starting point and clap your partner. He then also sprints to the point and takes an emotion ball out of his pocket, with which he sprints back and claps the partner again. What is the aim of this activity? In order to train the identification of the emotions under physical exhaustion, the players have to find the positive emotion balls as quickly as possible despite fatigue / stress. When was this activity successfully completed? It is run until there are no more balls with positive emotions in the pocket. The team that has collected more balls wins. If both teams have collected the same number, the team that was faster wins. How can you vary this activity? One possible variation is that only balls with negative emotions may be taken out of the bag. It is run until there are no more negative balls. Alternatively, the balls can also be transported back in different ways, e.g. happily - throwing from one hand to the other above head height, sad - circling around the waist, angry - bouncing, afraid - throwing up and catching behind the back, disgusting - walk backwards. 17_08_11_Emotionale_Intellektiven_im_Sport_aw.indd 80 11.08.17 16:09 81 Activities for training emotional intelligence Fig. 9: The participants sprint, in the form of a relay run, to the point where the "emotion balls" are collected, take a positive "emotion ball" and bring him to your "warehouse" as soon as possible. 6.1.2 VARIATION: "POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE EMOTIONAL BALLS" Which emotional skills are trained with this activity? Identification of your own emotions. How old should people be with whom this activity is being performed? > 6 How many people can this activity be carried out with? > 4 Which material is required? 16 balls are required for four people (e.g. tennis balls). Before starting, the players will paint the emotions as emoticons with markers on the balls; the number of positive and negative emotions should be the same. How does this activity work? The activity “positive and negative emotion balls” is about correctly recognizing emotion valences (predominantly positive or predominantly negative). With this variation, the emotion balls are randomly distributed on the meadow / in the hall. Then teams of two are formed, which have the task of collecting the balls again. All teams of two are allowed to start running at the same time and should collect as many emotion balls as possible as quickly as possible. Positive emotion balls score two points, negative emotion balls score one point. What is the aim of this activity? The goal of the variation “positive and negative emotion balls” is to evaluate emotions in terms of their value, i. H. Emotions that one strives for in 17_08_11_Emotionale_Intellektiven_im_Sport_aw.indd 81 11.08.17 16:09 Emotional intelligence in sport 82 and to be able to classify emotions that one usually avoids. To do this, you have to correctly recognize the emotions on the balls. The goal is to score more points than your opponent. When was this activity successfully completed? The activity has been completed successfully if the participants can confidently distinguish between positive and negative emotions. How can this activity be varied? It can always be run alternately. The person collecting a ball must mimic the depicted emotion, and the couple receives an extra point if the person waiting can guess the emotion correctly. 6.2 ACTIVITY "FIRE, WATER, LIGHTNING" Which emotional skills are trained with this activity? Identifying the emotions of others. How old should people be with whom this activity is being performed? < 10="" jahren="" mit="" wie="" vielen="" personen="" kann="" diese="" aktivität="" durchgeführt="" werden?=""> 4 What material is required? One sheet is required for each emotion that is to be trained. The sheet must be big enough that you can see from a distance what is depicted on it. It starts with three emotions, which means that there should be at least three leaves. How many emotion sheets are added is up to the trainer. However, there should not be too many in order to maintain the learning effect. Before the start, an emotion in the form of an emoticon is painted on each of the sheets. How does this activity work? The activity “fire, water, lightning” consists in recognizing emotional facial expressions and performing sporting tasks assigned to the different emotions accordingly. The trainer prepares several prints with pictures of different emotional facial expressions, one emotion per sheet (Fig. 10). Whenever the trainer holds up one of the emotion sheets, it is the task of the children / participants to show the corresponding emotions and to carry out an additional task that the trainer had announced in advance: For example, the participants should 17_08_11_Emotionale_Intellellect_im_Sport_aw.indd 82 11.08.17 16: 09 83 Activities for training emotional intelligence end when an angry facial expression is shown, doing push-ups, lining up behind the trainer with a fearful facial expression or passing a ball to a teammate with a happy facial expression. The tasks associated with showing the various emotions can be chosen freely, but should be clearly distinguishable from one another. It is important that a certain emotion is linked to the same task in each exercise (e.g. anger → push-ups, fear → a line behind the trainer, joy → the ball fits another child). Because an emotion-task coupling is created over several exercise units, the children can gain confidence in recognizing emotions and consolidate their knowledge. The basic activity can also be increased gradually: as soon as the children are familiar with the first three emotions, further emotions can be introduced and linked to new tasks. Fig. 10: Participants perform an exercise that matches the emotional expression on the instructor's sign (e.g. push-ups with angry facial expression). What is the aim of this activity? The goal of this activity is to identify the emotions of others through observation. This activity was derived from various emotion recognition training protocols [29, 30]. When was this activity successfully completed? The activity is considered successful if all children are able to correctly identify the emotions shown. It can also be seen that the children are doing the right task when they know what to do on their own and do not just imitate the other children. 17_08_11_Emotionale_Intellektiven_im_Sport_aw.indd 83 11.08.17 16:09 Emotional Intelligence in Sport 84 6.2.1 VARIATION: "LINK WITH POWER POSES" This activity also offers a good opportunity to do "power poses" (showing gestures and body language associated with success and pride are to be practiced (see activity 10). Following the emotion sheet that the trainer holds up, the children perform a power pose that they connect to the emotion shown. The pose can have the function of maintaining the emotion shown, e.g. B. with positively beneficial emotions, or have the function of the emotional experience, z. B. from fear of regulating. In order to use the effect of the "power pose" for themselves, the children should remain in the corresponding pose for a few seconds, i. That is, the trainer should allow time here so that the children can adopt the poses and feel the desired effect. 6.2.2 VARIATION: “PREPARING THE EMOTIONS” In an advanced team, the participants already know what the different emotions look like from the emotion sheets. In this way, instead of the images shown, a child can take responsibility and express certain emotions for the rest of the group on the advice of the trainer. 6.3 ACTIVITY “EMOTIONAL FACES IN MOVEMENT” Which emotional skills are trained with this activity? Expression of your own emotions. How old should people be with whom this activity is being performed? < 10="" jahren="" mit="" wie="" vielen="" personen="" kann="" diese="" aktivität="" durchgeführt="" werden?=""> 8 Which material is required? A cone that is set up about 15 m away. How does this activity work? The activity “Emotional Faces in Motion” is based on the idea of ​​a role play in which the people involved take on roles in a story (e.g. “Schmidt family”). In the course of the story the characters 17_08_11_Emotionale_Intellektiven_im_Sport_aw.indd 84 11.08.17 16:09 85 Activities for training emotional intelligence experience different emotions and the task of the people involved is to simulate these emotions with the help of facial expressions. For this purpose, the children are divided into groups of the same size as possible, which should not be larger than six people in order to keep waiting times as short as possible. Each child takes on a role in the fictional "Schmidt family" (e.g. father, mother, child, grandpa ...) and places themselves behind a line in their group. You also need a cone that marks a turning point about 15 m away. The structure is shown in Fig. 11. The trainer then tells a story in which the fictional roles experience different emotions. If the relevant role of the children in the story is mentioned (e.g.Grandma), it is your job to express the emotion with the expression on your face while walking as fast as you can to the turning point and back. Depending on the requirements of the sport, they can also solve any kind of other task on the run, such as B. transporting a balloon, dribbling a football or basketball, walking through a coordination ladder, etc. To give you a concrete idea, we have listed part of an example story in the box below. Fig. 11: Setup - “Schmidt family visits the zoo” “SCHMIDT FAMILY VISITS THE ZOO” When they arrived at the tiger cage, father Schmidt was astonished to see the majestic animals (to his astonishment, “Papa Schmidt” would be at the turning point). But daughter Schmidt appeared frightened and quickly hid behind her mother when one of the tigers suddenly made a movement in her direction ("Daughter Schmidt" expresses fear). So they went to the next cage. Since it was a really hot summer day and the whole Schmidt family felt exhausted (all the children stand up and express exhaustion as they walk towards the turning point), they decided to take a break in the shade of a large oak tree. 17_08_11_Emotionale_Intellektiven_im_Sport_aw.indd 85 11.08.17 16:09 Emotional intelligence in sport 86 What is the goal of this activity? The first activity “Emotional Faces in Motion” is understood as role-play training in which emotions are expressed through one's own facial expressions [31]. The aim of this activity is to be able to correctly express various emotions that are told in a story. Fig. 12: The “happy” race to the turning point. On the side is the instructor who tells the story and holds up the sign with the matching facial expression. When was this activity successfully completed? The activity was successful when the children are able to clearly express the emotions in the story. A viewer unable to hear the story should be able to identify the emotions shown. 6.4 “EMOTIONAL ODYSSEY” ACTIVITY Which emotional skills are trained with this activity? Identifying the emotions of others. How old should people be with whom this activity is being performed? All ages How many people can this activity be done with? > 4 Which material is required? You need four emotion cards on which the emotions anger, fear, surprise and joy are represented. These can be drawn on beforehand using a marker. Alternatively, photos of the corresponding emotions can be printed out. 17_08_11_Emotionale_Intellektiven_im_Sport_aw.indd 86 11.08.17 16:09 87 Activities for training emotional intelligence How does this activity work? Before the activity starts, the trainer places emotion cards, i. That is, a card with an emotional image as a facial expression (Fig. 14), in the different corners of the hall or square. The participants then jog in a predetermined area, each corner of which has an emotion card. If the trainer calls out one of the emotions, it is the task of the participants to run to the respective corner (Fig. 13). Fig. 13: Schematic sequence of the “Emotional Odyssey” What is the aim of this activity? This activity is derived from the established emotion recognition training protocols [29, 30] and aims to introduce different emotions so that children can understand what facial expressions look like when other people experience certain emotions and what the respective emotion is called. This exercise is a good preliminary exercise to prepare people for Activity 7, Mindfulness, and is therefore particularly suitable for younger children. When was this activity successfully completed? The activity is a success if the participants are able to properly identify the emotions. This means that when the trainer says "anger", they run towards the image of an angry person. In addition, they should be able to assess the emotions in the picture and decide whether the feeling is good or bad. Fig. 14: Exemplary emotion cards for the “Emotional Odyssey” 17_08_11_Emotionale_Intellektiven_im_Sport_aw.indd 87 11.08.17 16:09 Emotional intelligence in sport 88 6.4.1 VARIATION: “FACIAL EXPRESSION AND BODY LANGUAGE” With the variation “facial expression and body language”, the emotion cards should be changed Body expressions are expanded. The trainer can then show several images of the same emotions in order to bring the complexity of the emotional experience closer. Fig. 15: Exemplary “emotion cards” for the “Emotional Odyssey” 6.4.2 VARIATION: “EMOTIONAL INTERVIEW” With the “Emotional Interview” variation, the activity is expanded to include an additional communication task. To do this, each participant should select a partner. The couples then tell each other a story about the particular emotion named by the trainer or ask themselves some questions about it, such as: B: “When was the last time you felt like this?”, “What exactly did you feel?”, “How did your behavior change when you felt this way?”, “How can you put yourself in this emotional state ? ”,“ How could you use the emotional state in your favor? ”Etc. In this way, the emotion is not only represented by the facial expression, but also by the exemplary stories from the personal experience of the participants. This gives you a differentiated picture of when this emotion occurs more intensely and how the emotional experience is expressed. 17_08_11_Emotionale_Intellektiven_im_Sport_aw.indd 88 11.08.17 16:09 89 Activities for training emotional intelligence 6.5 ACTIVITY “COMMUNICATION EXERCISE” Which emotional skills are trained with this activity? Identification of one's own emotions and the emotions of others; Understanding one's own emotions and the emotions of others; Expression of one's own emotions and the emotions of others. How old should people be with whom this activity is being performed? > 10 years With how many people can this activity be carried out? > 2 Which material is required? No additional material is required for this exercise. How does this activity work? The activity “communication exercise” is a partner activity to deepen and improve communication. As a basic activity, the "communication exercise" can be used both in organized sport and in leisure activities, during a break or at the end of training. In the "communication exercise", both people take on the role of speaker or listener one after the other, whereby the topic to be talked about can be determined in advance or freely chosen according to the interests of the people. Fig. 16: Division into pairs for the communication exercise Here, the instructor should consider what the specific goal of the exercise is. Have participants talk about personal topics such as: For example: "What was a formative experience in your childhood?", "What makes you afraid?", "What are typical situations that make you angry and how do you usually deal with them?" These types of questions require a certain level of trust. Therefore, in most cases it makes sense to only propose comparable topics to 17_08_11_Emotionale_Intellektiven_im_Sport_aw.indd 89 11.08.17 16:09 Emotional Intelligence in Sport 90 when the athletes know each other better. People who don't know each other can start with a little more superficial topics: For example: "What do you do in your free time?", "Why do you take part in this sport?", "What was the funniest thing you experienced today?" The process then looks as follows (see also Fig. 17 ). First person A speaks for a set amount of time (e.g. five minutes), then both participants are calm to reflect on what has been said. Then person B expresses her thoughts for the same amount of time (e.g. five minutes) and both are silent again. In a final phase, both people have time to discuss what has been said. This activity is particularly useful for teams who spend a lot of time together, e.g. B. in the training camps before the season or during the winter break. The players have the chance to get to know each other and themselves better. Another possibility to use this technique could be during the warm-up before training, but also during training to clear up a misunderstanding between two players and thereby avoid major conflicts. Fig. 17: Schematic representation of the "communication exercise" Depending on the time available, the "communication exercise" can be shortened or lengthened as required and combined with other activities. For example, the time to warm up is often relatively short, so the individual phases can only be a few minutes long. But if you think of endurance sports, such as B. a long-distance run or a bike ride, the four phases can easily be extended to 15-20 minutes. What is the aim of this activity? The “communication exercise” as a partner activity was derived from Mesibov [32] and has two main goals. On the one hand, it is about improving your ability to express yourself and a deeper understanding of your own emotions. This is achieved by talking for a few minutes without a break in order to get on a more in-depth topic than normal, often short, conversations. On the other hand, the activity is supposed to improve the ability to listen, which can also have an effect on the recognition of emotions in other people. This also aims to improve understanding of the other person's emotions and the values ​​and motivations behind their behavior. Overall, the “communication exercise” in a team can lead to a better atmosphere between the individual players. 17_08_11_Emotionale_Intellektiven_im_Sport_aw.indd 90 11.08.17 16:09 91 Activities for training emotional intelligence When was this activity successfully completed? The communication exercise activity is a success if both participants are able to remain silent and listen attentively while their teammate speaks, and to use the time available to discuss a personal topic . The participants should ideally find it pleasant to talk about personal topics. 6.5.1 VARIATION: "CLEAR TEXT" Which emotional skills are trained with this activity? Understanding your own emotions and the emotions of others, expressing your own emotions and the emotions of others. How old should people be with whom this activity is being performed? > 10 years With how many people can this activity be carried out? Any, but the conversations should take place in private. How does this activity work? The "plain text" variation is about having a conversation with a teammate as openly as possible. Participants can complete the activity at a comfortable pace at which they can still talk to one another, e.g. B. when jogging or cycling. They should ask and answer certain questions one after the other and talk about certain topics, for example why they started this sport, why they still do it and what emotions they encounter it. What is the aim of this activity? The aim of this activity is to do sport with a partner and to get to know his motives for doing sport better and which emotions this sport can trigger. In addition, you gain a different perspective and get to know the motives of the other better, why, how and with what goals they do sports. This also promotes the development of empathy. When was this activity successfully completed? The activity is considered successful if at the end the two participants can summarize what the other person answered to the question (s). 17_08_11_Emotionale_Intellektiven_im_Sport_aw.indd 91 11.08.17 16:09 Emotional Intelligence in Sport 92 6.5.2 VARIATION: "SPEEDINTERVIEW" Which emotional skills are trained with this activity? Expressing one's own emotions and the emotions of others, understanding one's own emotions and the emotions of others. How old should people be with whom this activity is being performed? > 10 years With how many people can this activity be carried out? 4-20 Which material is required? You can either use a ball for dribbling or, alternatively, use a course of different strength exercises. How does this activity work? The variation “speed interview” is also a communication exercise in which you should tell as much as possible about yourself and find out about your counterpart in a short period of time. The group dribbles in a relatively small field (or alternatively through a course of various strength exercises). The trainer then gives instructions to get together in pairs and answer the following questions he has asked, for example: "Why do you play sports?", "What was the happiest moment of your childhood that you remember?" , “What stressful event are you still thinking about in recent years?” Aim of the activity: The aim of this activity is to get to know yourself and other people better and to tell or ask about personal things in a very short time. This is intended to reduce inhibitions about talking about emotional topics. When was this activity successfully completed? The activity is successful when people talk openly with each other and get to know each other better. This leads to a better understanding of the background to their actions and feelings in certain situations. 6.6 “DEBRIEFING SHEET” ACTIVITY Which emotional competencies are trained with this activity? Identification and understanding of your own emotions. How old should people be with whom this activity is being performed? Any age group. 17_08_11_Emotionale_Intellektiven_im_Sport_aw.indd 92 11.08.17 16:09 93 Activities for training emotional intelligence With how many people can this activity be carried out? Alone, discussion with trainer / partner or in a group possible. What material do you need? This activity is carried out using the “debriefing sheet”, which you can find below. How does this activity work? The “debriefing sheet” is intended to help you reflect on your own emotions. After the training or competition, you can use the debriefing sheet to reflect on your emotions and feelings as well as your performance. You can complete the debriefing sheet (Tab. 6 - p. 94). ❱ What happened? How was the situation ❱ What emotions did you experience? ❱ How intense were your emotions? ❱ How much control did you have? ❱ Were the emotions a hindrance or a benefit? ❱ What coping strategy did you use? ❱ How effective was your strategy? With such a debriefing sheet you can increase your own awareness, your own regulatory strategies and, if necessary, your own performance in certain situations. If athletes feel overwhelmed by negative emotions and ineffective regulatory strategies, the debriefing sheet enables them to find suitable ways to deal with stressors and to react accordingly. Another possible use of the debriefing sheet is to create a plan of action for similar future situations. This advance planning can help prepare and enable future performance-supporting coping strategies. What is the aim of this activity? This activity makes it possible to better understand the interplay between stress, emotions and coping and to improve it accordingly [6, 33, 34]. The aim of the questionnaire is to encourage the athlete to think about certain situations during a competition or training session. The idea is that through targeted reflection based on the debriefing sheet, people can learn to reduce negative emotions and inefficient coping strategies and to promote helpful emotions and effective coping strategies. 17_08_11_Emotionale_Intellektiven_im_Sport_aw.indd 93 08/11/17 16:09 Emotional intelligence in sport 94 When was this activity successfully completed? The debriefing sheet is used successfully when people are able to identify which emotions they are experiencing and can express and write them down in words.1) Event / stressor 2) Intensity of the emotion 3) Experience of control over the situation 4) Type of emotion 5) Function of the emotion: helpful (+) or hindering (-) for the performance (influence on the decisions) 6) Coping strategy 7) Coping effectiveness 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Note: How do I use the debriefing sheet? The Likert scales range from 1 (not at all) to 5 (very strong). The fields should be filled in as follows: 1) Event / Stressor: Write down which memorable events or stressful situations you experienced during the game. 2) Intensity of Emotions: Mark the intensity of the emotion you felt in the situation. 3) Experienced control over the situation: Mark the extent to which you felt control over the situation. 4) Type of emotion: Name the emotion and, if necessary, write down thoughts that you associate with the emotion in the situation. 5) Function of the emotion: was the emotion helpful or did it hinder you? Mark this with a + or a -. 6) Coping strategy: Write down how you coped with the situation. 7) Assessment of the coping strategy: Did the coping strategy work? Evaluate the effectiveness. Tab. 6: Debriefing sheet for the competition: Evaluation of events, stressors, emotions and coping strategies 17_08_11_Emotionale_Intellektiven_im_Sport_aw.indd 94 11.08.17 16:09 95 Activities for training emotional intelligence 6.7 ACTIVITY “Mindfulness” Which emotional skills are trained with this activity? Identifying one's own emotions and the emotions of others, understanding one's own emotions and the emotions of others, expressing the emotions of others, regulating one's own emotions and the emotions of others. How old should people be with whom this activity is being performed? All ages How many people can this activity be done with? > 2 Which material is required? If you want, you can use a ball for this activity. However, this is not absolutely necessary. What is the (scientific) background of this activity? Mindfulness can be defined as “momentary awareness” or “being here and now”. Mindfulness arises “by directing one's own attention in a special way: intentionally being in the present moment and acting in a non-judgmental way” [35]. Mindfulness means looking at everything as it is in the current moment, without judging things or interpreting them in any way. In everyday life you are often so busy with your own thoughts that there is hardly any space to pay attention to everyone and everything around you. Mindfulness focuses attention on the task, notices when the mind wanders and brings it back into focus. This can be relevant in many sporting contexts, implemented in training and competition and already trained in children. How does this activity work? This activity comprises a group of activities that are intended to promote “mindfulness” and a widespread variant can be found among the variations (see Section 6.7.1). One can train mindfulness with simple exercises such as: B. by focusing on breathing. These exercises can be integrated as a routine at the beginning of the training, at the end or as a break for relaxation. One possible exercise to promote mindfulness is described by Daniel Goleman [36] in which children lie on their backs for a few minutes, place a ball on their stomach and move it up and down with their breath. Whenever you notice your mind wandering and thoughts popping into your head, bring your attention back to your breath. What is the aim of this activity? The goal of mindfulness activities in general is to increase emotional self-awareness, which forms the basis for all five emotional competencies. In other words: Without an awareness of the current moment, for example because of distracting thoughts, an athlete cannot identify, express, understand, regulate or use emotions effectively. When was this activity successfully completed? The most important part of this exercise is controlling your thoughts and noticing whenever thoughts come into your mind. When irrelevant thoughts spring to mind, it is possible to bring the focus back to a specific aspect, e.g. B. your own breath. If an athlete is able to control his thoughts for a period of time, the activity can be considered a success. The focus time can be increased in further exercises. 6.7.1 VARIATION: "BODY SCAN" Which emotional skills are trained with this activity? Identification of your own emotions. How old should people be with whom this activity is being performed? > 10 years With how many people can this activity be carried out? This exercise can be done alone or in groups. What material do you need? All you need for this activity is a quiet, comfortable, and warm place. What is the (scientific) background of this activity? Body scan meditation is a widespread exercise [37], which is used, for example, in established rehabilitation facilities to reduce stress. The exercise is suitable for For example, it is good for recovering and calming down after intensive training or a strenuous competition, or for relaxing before an event. Furthermore, your own body awareness can be improved. The following script [37] can be used as a guide for performing the body scan. How does this activity work? In the following we provide you with exemplary instructions for the body scan: “Lie on your back in a comfortable place, such as your bed, the floor or a foam mat. Make sure you are in a warm, sheltered place where you will not be interrupted and where you will feel safe. To begin, close your eyes. Focus your attention on the flow of your breath. Feel the stomach rise and fall with every breath. Take 17_08_11_Emotionale_Intellektiven_im_Sport_aw.indd 96 11.08.17 16:09 97 Activities for training emotional intelligence Take a few moments to feel your body as a whole, from head to toe and feel the contact with the surface on which you are lying. Next, bring your attention to your left foot and toes by taking deep breaths in and out, trying to breathe into your toes. It can help to imagine the breath traveling through your body, from your nose, through your lungs, and down your trunk, down your left leg, down to your toes, and then back again. Feel these sensations in your toes. If you don't feel anything at the moment, that's fine too. When ready, 'step off' the toes and move your focus of attention to the sole of the foot, heel, top of the foot, and the ankle. Keep breathing into each region of the body and feel the sensations you are experiencing. Let go of this now and move on to the next region of the body. In this way, slowly move through your left leg and through the rest of your body (right leg, back, arms, head, face, etc.) as described. Try to keep the focus on the breath and on the sensations in each region. ”What is the goal of this activity? This activity aims to improve the ability to perceive all of the signals sent by the body. Practicing physical cognition in a relaxed environment makes it easier to become aware of them in more demanding and stressful situations. This, in turn, makes it easier to identify and regulate emotions. For example, if an athlete finds that his heart rate and muscle tone is increasing because an opponent has insulted him, he could identify his current state as anger and then use relaxation techniques to lower his muscle tone and heart rate and thereby induce adverse physical reactions reduce or avoid. When was this activity successfully completed? This activity is successfully implemented when the person performing it reaches a deeply relaxed state and focuses fully consciously on the particular part of the body that is being "scanned". Fig. 18: A participant during the body scan mindfulness exercise. 17_08_11_Emotionale_Intellektiven_im_Sport_aw.indd 97 11.08.17 16:09 Emotional Intelligence in Sport 98 6.8 ACTIVITY "EMBODIMENT EMOTIONS" Which emotional skills are trained with this activity? Understanding your own emotions, expressing your own emotions, using your own emotions. How old should people be with whom this activity is being performed? Suitable for every age group (strength and precision exercises are adjusted depending on the age group). How many people can this activity be done with? Can be done alone. What material do you need? ❱ a soft floor mat, ❱ a handball (alternatively a soccer ball is also possible), üt cones, ❱ weights (e.g. a weight sled / gymnastics box; this is optional, however), ❱ a table tennis ball, ❱ a spoon and ❱ a rubber ball. How does this activity work? The activity "Embodied Emotions" is based on the knowledge that our physical states are related to our emotional, psychological states and that they influence one another. First, people put themselves in the state of "joy" or "anger" by making either an extremely happy facial expression or an extremely angry facial expression for 20 seconds (studies on so-called facial feedback show that the expression of emotions is not just a result of experienced emotions but, also vice versa, can trigger emotional states). Then they choose one of the four stations and try to complete it as well as possible. 17_08_11_Emotionale_Intellektiven_im_Sport_aw.indd 98 11.08.17 16:09 99 Activities for training emotional intelligence Strength exercises ❱ Station 1: A soft floor mat is set up on edge and must be knocked over with a strong handball throw from 4 m away (alternatively with a football shot). ❱ Station 2: Sprint with additional workload. The aim of this activity is to sprint 30 meters as fast as possible. Additional stress can be induced by pulling a weight (e.g., a weight sled or exercise box) or another person trying to slow down the sprinting participant. Precision exercises ❱ Station 1 balance course: a table tennis ball is transported in a spoon while a ball is bounced with the other hand. A 30 m long slalom run must be completed around a bench, a hat and a box. If the table tennis ball falls, you have to start over. ❱ Station 2 rubber cone: A rubber ball must be thrown against the wall from a distance of 5 m using a cone and then caught again with the cone. This must be successfully completed 10 times in a row. If the ball falls on the ground, it starts all over again. What is the aim of this activity? Different emotions can promote or hinder performance depending on the task. With physical feedback you can put yourself into emotional states (e.g. when you smile, joy can be induced). Facial feedback is intended to induce either anger or joy. Then coordinative precision tasks or power tasks are selected and carried out. The people should recognize in themselves which emotions serve or harm them in coping with different tasks. When was this activity successfully completed? For the strength exercises: Station 1: When the soft floor mat falls over (the number of times it falls can be varied as required). Station 2: When the sprint is accomplished in a certain time. For the precision tasks: Station 1: When the course is completed without errors or in a certain amount of time. Station 2: When 10 successive passes are played against the wall. 17_08_11_Emotionale_Intellektiven_im_Sport_aw.indd 99 11.08.17 16:09 Emotional Intelligence in Sport 100 With regard to emotional competencies, the participants should recognize that the facial expressions they "put on" influenced their emotional experience and their athletic performance in different ways . Understanding this complex relationship is made easier by one's own experience. How can this activity be varied? The strength and precision exercises can be exchanged and varied as required. Other ways of inducing emotions are also conceivable (e.g. remembering personal experiences that made you angry or happy). 6.9 ACTIVITY “EMOTIONAL TIME TRAVEL” Which emotional competencies are trained with this activity? Identifying the emotions of others, expressing the emotions of others. How old should people be with whom this activity is being performed? All ages How many people can this activity be done with? >