What kind of crop is a mango
- from 300.00cm to 400.00cm
- Leaf shape
- elongated lanceolate
- Sheet properties
- Shoot color
- Ornamental or utility value
- Fruit decorations
- Leaf jewelry
- Winter garden
The botanical roots of the mango tree (Mangifera indica) are in Southeast Asia. There the evergreen trees with the sweet fruits grew in the rainforests 4,000 years ago and were used by the indigenous people. The fruits came to Europe in the 16th century with the seafarers of that time. Even today, half of the world's mango production is harvested and consumed in India. For the Indians, the mango harvest between April and July is a very special time. The mango is revered there as the queen of fruits. In the meantime, there are no longer any mangoes from India because there is a ban on the import of the fruits produced there to Europe. This is to prevent harmful species of fruit flies from being introduced into Europe. Most of the mangoes we eat come from South America. Not only the fruits, but also the oil from the seeds of the mango plant is used. In Asia, fatty foods such as margarine and cosmetic products are made from this.
There are said to be over 1,000 different types of mango worldwide, many of which are cultivated in a very regionally limited manner. We have around 30 different varieties of the mango tree on the market, such as ‘Kent’, t Keitt ’or‘ Haden ’. Botanically, the plant genus Mangifera belongs to the sumac family (Anacardiaceae) and contains around 60 different species. Regarding the toxicity of the mango tree, it should be said that the milky sap in the bark and leaves contains ingredients that irritate the skin.
The mango tree is originally an evergreen wood that grows to 25 to 35 meters high and forms a very extensive crown. The trees can be up to three hundred years old and continue to bear fruit for that long. When cultivated in a tub, the plants reach a height of up to four meters. The mango plant is a taproot, so its roots extend deep into the depths. The bark of young plants is only green. The bark later turns gray-brown and shows longitudinal cracks. The trunk can secrete a white, rubbery sap when injured.
The foliage of Mangifera indica is stalked and elongated-lanceolate. The surface of the leathery leaves is smooth. The light green midrib is striking. Mango leaves are up to 30 centimeters long and about seven centimeters wide. When budding, the young leaves are reddish in color.
The mango plant has pyramidal panicles of flowers with numerous small individual flowers, the delicate petals of which are whitish or reddish in color. The flowers are hermaphroditic or purely male and are pollinated by various insects. Wind pollination also occurs. The flowers smell slightly of lilies. In our country, the flowering time of Mangifera indica usually falls in June.
After flowering, it takes three to five months, depending on the variety, for the mango fruits to ripen. The ripe, mostly egg-shaped mangoes hang from the plant on long stalks. Mangoes are a stone fruit, which means that the core is surrounded by a woody peel, which is the innermost of the three fruit layers. The mango kernel is relatively large, flattened and woody-fibrous. This is where the actual seed lies, which is somewhat smaller and brownish in color. The fruits of the tub mango trees that we cultivate are only about half the size of normal mangoes, but who cares. It is a special gift if you own a blooming mango and you can even harvest ripe fruit in September or October. Because mangoes are real super fruits with many good ingredients and an unbelievably heavenly taste. Mangoes contain a lot of vitamins A and C, a lot of minerals for a fruit and their fiber content is also worth mentioning.
As a tropical plant, the mango tree needs a very warm and bright location. However, this does not have to be full sun for the rainforest plant as it is for oleander or citrus. In our latitudes you can really only put a mango tree outside in the garden for a few months in summer. A greenhouse heated all year round or a warm, sunny winter garden is ideal. Especially when you want to harvest ripe mangoes, the plant needs a lot of warmth and light.
Mango plants in pots can thrive in any peat-free quality potting soil for potted plants. The substrate should be loose and humus.
The mango tree needs evenly moist soil without waterlogging. If the potting soil dries out, the leaf edges turn brown. Always water with lukewarm water that is adapted to the ambient temperature.
Fertilize the mango tree
The most important thing in caring for a mango tree is the right fertilization. From April to September Mangifera indica should be given a complete fertilizer in the irrigation water once a week in the concentration recommended by the manufacturer. The plant needs medium to high nutrients to grow and fruit, so it should not go hungry.
Mango trees grow quickly under good site conditions and have to be repotted once a year, especially in the first years of standing. This is best done in early spring. The plants are put into pots that are about four to six centimeters larger in diameter. A taller rather than a flat, wide pot is best suited for the mango tree's roots.
The mango plants do not need a regular cut, because the crown naturally branches out regularly. Individual, too long shoots that grow out of the crown can be shortened during hibernation.
Hibernate the mango tree
As a tropical plant, the mango tree does not want to be colder than ten degrees Celsius, even in winter. It is best to overwinter the plants until they sprout in March or April at temperatures around 15 degrees Celsius. The plants should not be exposed to temperatures below three degrees Celsius, even for a short period of time. In winter the plants hibernate, but need a bright location. Here, too, a place in the winter garden is ideal. The watering amount is adjusted to the winter temperature. The warmer a mango tree is, the more water it needs in winter.
In the container plant trade, some varieties are available as refined young plants, such as the well-known ‘Kent’ with a rounded shape, green-red skin and low-fiber pulp. The American variety Tommy Atkins ’from Florida has large fruits that are almost purple in color when fully ripe. ‘Kaew Sawei’ comes from Thailand, the fruit of which is narrower and yellow-green.
Do you love exotic plants and do you like to experiment? Then pull a little mango tree out of a mango seed! We'll show you how this can be done very easily here.
Credit: MSG / Camera + Editing: Marc Wilhelm / Sound: Annika Gnädig
In principle, you can grow a new mango tree yourself from the core of a ripe mango. If you want to plant the mango kernel, you need patience, a lot of warmth and high humidity. Commercially available mango trees are propagated through grafting so that the plant can grow and fruit according to the variety. Grafted mango trees can already bear the first mangoes in the bucket in the second or third year.
Diseases and pests
As with many other warmly overwintered container plants, infestation with scale insects can occur. Soft skin mites can also attack the plants. Scale insects can be combated with oily, biological pesticides and the soft skin mites with the use of predatory mites.
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