Is gender education better than co-education

Gender-specific education in co-education

Table of Contents

1 Introduction

2. The difference between the sexes and its origins
2.1 In preschool age
2.2 At school age
2.2.1 Interests and skills from elementary school to university
2.2.2 Learning strategies
2.2.3 Behavior, willingness to learn and socialization in class

3. Problems in the co-educational form of teaching
3.1 The behavior of teachers
3.2 The girls' self-concept
3.3 Problems for both sexes

4. Solution approaches
4.1 Monoeducation
4.2 Reflexive co-education
4.3 Lead by example

5. Conclusion

6. Bibliography

1 Introduction

Today, at least in Germany and Europe, school lessons take place in mixed, that is, heterogeneous classes. The key is that the lessons are of equal value for both sexes. Such a form of teaching, which is largely “normal” for us, was unimaginable a little more than a hundred years ago in Germany. Education was an authority reserved for men. At the beginning of the 19th century, Humboldt and the philologists demanded “general human education”, under which women should also be given access to education. However, the education in higher public schools, which went beyond elementary education, was still intended for the male sex. Girls of the middle and higher classes stayed at the “higher daughter schools”, which by and large served to prepare the girls for their later life as wives and mothers (cf. Kraul 2009, p. 352). The timetable should be based on the ideal of a patriotic and Christian educated woman (cf. Kraul 1991, p. 281). In the memorandum of the first German general assembly of conductors and teachers of the higher girls’s schools it is written:

“It is important to enable women to have an education that is equal to the man’s mental education in general in terms of type and interests, so that the German man does not become bored with the domestic flock due to the mental short-sightedness and narrow-mindedness of his wife” (monthly for the entire German girls' school system 1873, p. 23 quoted from Kraul 1991, p. 281)

Fortunately, this image has changed in the course of history, so that it is now possible for women and girls to be educated in mixed schools on an equal footing and thus also to fulfill their respective career aspirations. However, even today there are still voices in school research according to which girls, especially in coeducational classes, are still at a disadvantage, especially with regard to the implementation of their good performance in their later career. There are also some criticisms among the boys, e.g. that they are less interested in social professions than intended by the co-education (cf. Koch-Priewe 2009, p. 151).

How justified these criticisms are, why this inequality still prevails even after years of co-education and what the possible solutions are, should be explored in this work.

2. The difference between the sexes and its origins

2.1 In preschool age

If you ask anyone in general about the difference between girls and boys today, you usually hear the same thing, for example that girls prefer to play with dolls, like to make themselves beautiful and are more well-behaved, while boys are said to be prefer to play with cars or the computer and be little, cheeky bully. These default settings did not come about by themselves, nor are they completely meaningless for the environment. Even if the child's behavior cannot be generalized in terms of gender-typical preferences and activities, there is still a certain difference between boys and girls, which in most cases is also wanted by society and of course by parents. While the child as an infant is still difficult to influence in terms of gender, apart from, for example. From the design of the children's room, the naming and clothing (cf. Blossfeld; Bos; Hannover; Lenzen; Müller-Böling; Prenzel; Wößmann 2009, p. 54), parents usually start their child in gender-specific activities when they are young Encourage by giving sons a gift of technical toys and registering in the sports club and daughters receiving dolls and encouraging them to dance ballet (cf. Hannover; Kessels 2008, p.117). However, it is not only the social environment that is decisive for the self-image that a child develops from his own gender, but also the child himself would like to integrate himself into gender-specific stereotypes and imitate or acquire the specific behavior (cf. , P. 117). This is also evident in the preference for same-sex playmates, which takes place from around the age of three and further supports gender-typical behavior (cf. Blossfeld et al. 2009, p. 55).

The gender-specific behavior begins in the earliest childhood, whereby it can be seen that the word “gender” in this context does not apply to or depends on biological characteristics, but rather in the sense of typical forms of action and characteristics of the child is projected, whereby it “actively appropriates gender itself” (Nissen 1998, p. 103). This process is also referred to as “doing gender”, which refers to the fact that the social or expected gender - the gender - in contrast to the physical gender, is created by the society and the culture in which we live (cf. ibid., p. 103ff), whereby “toys and games ... are of particular importance as sexuated cultural objects, since they obviously influence later social and career choices (ibid., p. 104).

2.2 At school age

The difference between boys and girls is by no means complete with the choice of playmates and toys. The various inclinations and interests, as well as social behavior, can be determined even more intensively from school age onwards.

2.2.1 Interests and skills from elementary school to university

On the surface, the picture emerges that girls and young women are more successful than boys throughout their entire school career. For example, girls start school more often earlier or less often later than boys (see Blossfeld et al. 2009, p. 79). In addition, girls have to repeat a grade less often, have better educational qualifications and progress through their school career faster than their male peers. Likewise, girls rarely attend schools with learning disabilities, two-thirds of which are attended by boys (cf. Faulstich-Wieland 2004, p. 676f).

From a subject-specific perspective, the preferences and skills of girls and boys in primary school differ, especially in German lessons, in which girls consistently perform better than boys throughout primary school. The international primary school reading study (IGLU), in which 2003 a. The reading and spelling behavior of fourth grade pupils was examined, showed that girls in this age group have a lower error density and write more words correctly than their male classmates. It turned out, however, that the boys, who are generally weaker in terms of orthography, are equal to the girls when writing certain words from the technical or adventure-specific field, such as “oily”, “sinks” or “spit”, which is based on interests Learning the spelling closes (cf. ibid., P. 678). In the natural sciences and mathematics, however, boys are superior to girls (cf. ibid. P. 678).

In the secondary schools, the differences are even more detailed, so over 60 percent of the girls prefer the subjects in the linguistic or artistic area, in which they are also more successful than the boys, of whom more than half opt for mathematics and natural science subjects, such as,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, Physics and mathematics, feel attracted and perform better there too. An exception was biology, which is relatively popular with both sexes (cf. ibid. P. 680f).

During their studies, most of the young women choose economics and law, as well as German and German. It is noticeable here that these subjects, with the exception of German studies, are also very popular with young men. Most women do not necessarily study subjects that are considered typical of women, but subjects that are popular with both sexes. Above all, men prefer engineering studies, which only a few women choose (cf. Blossfeld et al. 2009, p. 127).

2.2.2 Learning strategies

In terms of learning strategies, the genders differ in that the boys use elaboration strategies more often, which means that they link things that are already known to the new content or use memorization strategies, i.e. learning as much as possible. Girls, on the other hand, tend to rely on control strategies, i.e. they practice more and check their skills more often (cf. Hannover; Kessels 2008, p. 120). The girls also invest more time than the boys in doing their homework (cf. ibid., P. 120).

2.2.3 Behavior, willingness to learn and socialization in class

Differences between the male and female sex can be recognized not only in the performance, but also in the behavior of the students. It has been observed that girls are less likely to push themselves to the fore in class and are more likely to want to attract the teacher's attention by fulfilling his or her expectations. With the boys, however, the discipline problems are stronger, they need more attention and get this by behaving more conspicuously. Even if they are reprimanded more often as a result, they received the message “You are important to me” through the teacher's address (cf. Faulstich-Wieland 1995, p. 125).

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