Why the distant sound music sounds better

Beethoven and the "Music" of the Greek Tragedy Frontispiece to Nietzsche's 1872 Birth of Tragedy. Public domain. Nietzsche / Wagner or Nietzsche / Beethoven One hears again and again, and I myself have actually heard this all my life, that Nietzsche's primary musical reference in his first work The Birth of Tragedy was Wagner. And we all know how immensely important Wagner was to Nietzsche. Nevertheless, one might ask why there are almost no substantial explanations about Wagner in Nietzsche's book of tragedies: If everything is about Wagner, then more could be said about him. On the other hand, Nietzsche refers essentially to Beethoven in his book from beginning to end, in fact: from the first paragraph to the very last. The Nietzsche / Beethoven theme therefore formed the occasion for my book The Hallelujah Effect, since everything it contains - Leonard Cohen, k. d. long, even Theodor W. Adorno and Günther Anders to modern music as a term in 'our age of technical reproducibility' - only there is to answer this question Nietzsche / Beethoven 9 Fig. 9.1. 225 to consider in more detail.1 In the following I would like the reader to participate in some of these considerations, at least to some extent. In Der Wanderer und seine Schatten, the second large section of Menschliches, Allzumenschliches II, Nietzsche writes: Beethoven's music often seems like a deeply moved contemplation when unexpectedly listening to a long-lost piece "Innocence in Tones"; it's music about music. In the songs of the beggars and children in the street, with the monotonous wise men of wandering Italians, at the dance in the village tavern or on the nights of Carnival - then he discovered his "melodies": he collects them like a bee by being here soon soon caught a sound there, a short episode. For him they are transfigured memories from the "better world": similar to what Plato thought of ideas. - (WS § 152) This is a complex compilation, both in relation to the cascade of musical examples in Beethoven and in view of the (subsequent) comparison with Mozart.2 But before we can think more precisely about this complexity , let's interrupt ourselves: Hasn't Nietzsche research already presented a number of things as certain? Don't we 'know' already that Nietzsche loved Bizet3 or Rossini much more than Beethoven (or Mozart or Haydn or Bach)? Just as we are assured, sometimes in the same breath, that Nietzsche began as a Wagnerian and basically remained one until his death.4 Not least from the funny Anglo-Saxon Monty Python television sketch on philosophical obedience to obedience and We know loyalties that enthusiasm for a certain musician is not 1 Cf. Babich, “Nietzsche and Beethoven” in: The Hallelujah Effect, pp. 203f. 2 As Nietzsche might have known from the Mozart biography of his teacher Otto Jahn, Beehoven traveled to Vienna, where Mozart supposedly predicted great things about him. 3 That started relatively early, see e.g. B .: Daffner, Friedrich Nietzsche's marginal glosses on Bizet's Carmen and Klein, "Nietzsche and Bizet". Reference is also made to Leiner, “To Overcome One’s Self” and also Goetz, “Nietzsche aimait-il vraiment Bizet?” And also, more indirectly, Gilman, “Nietzsche, Bizet, and Wagner. 4 This is a serious, tacit prerequisite for many humanities scholars, from Ernst Bertram to Curt Paul Janz to Tracy B. Strong and, above all, Georges Liébert. In addition to the argumentation in his book Nietzsche and the Politics of Transfiguration, Strong even repeats this thesis and strengthens it by referring to my idea of ​​harmonious assembly in his introduction to Nietzsche's Twilight of the Idols in the translation by Richard Polt refers, vii – xviii, in particular xx – xxii. 9 Beethoven and the "music" of Greek tragedy 226 is seldom expressed by appealing to another competitor or by referring to another position over or against a third party - which is why the metaphor of the football team for philosophy remains convincing in any case . Accordingly, the great majority of the Nietzscheans vote for Wagner, while the self-proclaimed outsiders stand up for the other two musicians mentioned by Nietzsche - Rossini and Bizet. A few have expressed their favoritism with a view to Nietzsche's own compositions (I've advocated his improvisational art since my first book on Nietzsche's philosophy of science and the performative metaphor of 'concinnity'). My approach is therefore, despite the obvious subtitle of his birth of tragedy from the spirit of music, surprisingly a road with little or no traffic. In any case, it seemed necessary to me to write a rather complicated book in order to unfolding this approach as a question; and this book, The Hallelujah Effect, if I had preferred a Gnomish title to the one more borrowed from pop music, would have just as good Why Beethoven? can be called. Why does Beethoven appear in The Birth of Tragedy as a frontispiece before the foreword that precedes the book? (Fig. 9.1) 5 Nietzsche writes to Wagner: how you, perhaps after an evening hike in the winter snow, look at the unleashed Prometheus on the title page, read my name and are immediately convinced that whatever may be in this writing, the author has something serious and haunting to say, also that he, with everything he thought up, dealt with you as with someone in the present and was only allowed to write something corresponding to this present. You will remember that at the same time as your wonderful festschrift about Beethoven was being written, that is, in the horrors and grandeur of the war that had just broken out, I gathered myself together for these thoughts. (GT, preface) 5 Cf. Liszts 1850: The unleashed Prometheus as well as Goethe's Prometheus (quoted GT § 9) and Beethoven 1800/1801: The creatures of Prometheus. Next: Löcker-Euler, Philosophical Interpretation of the Fall of Man and Prometheus Myths and more in detail, Bertagnolli, Prometheus in Music and Corbeau-Parsons, Prometheus in the Nineteenth Century. Nietzsche / Wagner or Nietzsche / Beethoven 227 Part of the answer undoubtedly lies in Nietzsche's evocation of “innocence in tones” 6, of which we have just heard, which could be thought of with what Nietzsche elsewhere called the “innocence of becoming ', so in a kind of musical meaning of redemption. We can hear the same echo in the second edition of the Gay Science, which appeared in 1887 with a fifth book, 7 and it is not without significance, as I have emphasized elsewhere, that the publication of the Gay Science is closely related to the publication history of Also Spoke Zarathustra 8 Now, as I also claim, The Happy Science is already a return to the project of Nietzsche's first book, in particular the concluding reference to the musical challenge of an art of ending; and again it is not Wagner but, once again, Beethoven who is implored: “We can no longer take it - they call out to me -; away, away with this pitch-black music. […] [Not] such prophecies of doom, grave voices and marmot whistles that you have used to regulate us in your wilderness, my hermit and musician of the future! No! Not sounds like that! But let us tune in more pleasant and joyful! «(FW § 383) 9 6 Quote from the thoroughly satirical concluding paragraph of Nietzsche's Human, All Too Human:“ The Wanderer and His Shadow ”with reference to Lukian's satirical parodies, especially as Staging of the shadowy realm of the dead is usually overlooked. For a more detailed discussion of Nietzsche and Lukian, the cynic and satirist of the 2nd century, see above, chap. 3 and 5. 7 See further chap. 10 below. 8 Babich, “Future Past”. 9 It should be noted that I am by no means of the opinion that no one before me has noticed the meaning of these references. This is not the case, and Carl Dahlhaus as well as his then Berlin assistant, the musicologist Stephen Hinton, pointed out this emphasis on Nietzsche's part when Hinton's ingenious essay “Not Which Tones? The Crux of Beethoven’s Ninth ”was about clarifying the difficulty of an analytical understanding of Beethoven himself. As Hinton shows, the problem is a thoroughly musical one, which, according to Ian Bent, makes it quite hermeneutical, or a performative one, which is precisely why it is important for this topic. With Hinton, from "the beginning of the baritone recitative 'O friends, not these tones!" "(Ibid.) Everything is determined by the way in which the singer recites the word" tones ". He can sing the pitch truthfully, as indicated (“the pitches literally, as notated”) or, to further elaborate Hinton's contrast, put an unspecified but implied appoggiatura on the first syllable (“add an unnotated but implied appoggiatura on the first syllable ”[ibid.]). The alternative exists, as Hinton did 9 Beethoven and the "Music" of Greek Tragedy 228 Tragedy and Music Before he wrote The Birth of Tragedy from the Spirit of Music, Nietzsche's philological, that is, hermeneutical-phenomenological investigations of the “spirit” of music related to his exploration of the musical character of the Greek language as a spoken or sung one. And it is precisely in this sense that one should understand his reflections on Greek musical drama and dance, together with his discussion of arsis and thesis in relation to measure and rhythm, i.e. in relation to time and also musically. Beating the beat with your foot (or with your hand and in any case recognizable with the eye, as Nietzsche says) comes from the ancient Greek musical practice of dancing: orchestras.10 We have seen this way of beating the beat , on the dramatization, as it was stated in the score itself: "in the versions of the recitative presented earlier in the movement by the lower strings, the appoggiatura is written out." See Hinton's illustrations for Beethoven's 9th Symphony, Movement IV , Baritone recitative, mm. 216–236, p. 62. Hinton underlines the irony on the part of Beethoven, but he is also interested in what the interpretations say about ourselves, including what kind of ear we have for such varieties, be it in the context of scientific interpretation, but also in connection with the interpretation by other composers (such as Wagner) and during rehearsals. In this context, Hinton quotes Nietzsche, whom he rightly describes as “otherwise pro-Wagner” with all the weight of the birth of tragedy, since Nietzsche in “About Music and Word” draws attention to precisely these words or the tonality of the tones ( Nietzsche “About Music and Word” (ibid., P. 66). Hinton, who was Carl Dahlhaus's assistant at the Free University of Berlin, draws attention to this important point (which rarely happens even among Nietzsche researchers) and refers to the Kaufmann's translation of Nietzsche's “On Music and Word” in Dahlhaus, Between Romanticism and Modernism, pp. 103–119. According to Hinton, Nietzsche is therefore “the only commentator who has noticed the ironic meaning of Beethoven's references to notes instead of words, which for Wagner (Ibid., p. 67; transl. Cathrin Nielsen). 10 The dancers wore kroupezai or kroupala on their right foot to beat the beat. As Dale has shown, the reference to the dance is a lt is rudimentary at best: “, arsis‘ and, thesis ‘reflect the raising and lowering of the dancer's feet”. (Dale, The Lyric Meters of Greek Drama, p. 2; transl. CN) In a footnote, she urges caution: “As obscure as these terms have become through the different and contradicting usage of the last generations, they can be in the modern Metrics actually only cause confusion. ”(Ibid.) She herself discusses them in the final chapter of her book. A whole series of tragedy and music 229 in the sense of a literal coordination of time intervals, of theses, as Nietzsche says, is suitable: "The designation with the foot comes from orchestras: the dancer put his foot down in the difficult part of the beat." (KGW II2, p 102) In the description he made here, Nietzsche “pous, thesis, arsis [...] when walking and dancing, first put your foot up, then down” (ibid.) 11. This musical counting of the measure is obviously based on the rhythm of the spoken sentence. So we are talking about a type of rhythm that has nothing to do with stresses or what the philologist Nietzsche calls the "ictus" 12, and we usually make the ictus identifiable by stressing, while the non-stressing leaves it in the hands of authors on the subject of “Nietzsche's orchestras” with a view to Nietzsche's writings and their assessment of the current meaning of the term, its Greek origin is simply gone. In his book Die Orchestikologie und das Dissipative Thinking, Axel Pichler makes a great contribution to the subject of dance in my opinion, but disregards any discussion of Nietzsche's own basic texts, i.e. antiquity, which demands to be interpreted in terms of lyric poetry how Nietzsche (and interestingly also Dale in their above mentioned work) do this (Nietzsche in connection with the folk song). Nevertheless, Pichler's work is quite valuable and at least refers to the Greek term, which is completely missing in Stauth and Turner's Weberian and therefore unfortunately little philosophical and even less philological text with the wonderful (albeit misleading) title Nietzsche’s Dance. In addition to Dale's broader investigation, Günther's rhythm must be mentioned in the early Nietzsche. See also Günther: “On the guide of rhythm”. On Adorno see, On a theory of musical reproduction. In Curt Sachs ’words as well as in accordance with Nietzsche's quantitative measure of time and in contrast to the accentuation rhythm:“ The metrical accents in poetry and melody obeyed the so-called quantitative principle; they appeared as long syllables or tones under short ones, but not as heavy ones between light strokes. ”(Sachs, Die Musik der Alten Welt in Ost und West, p. 241) Adorno puts the dance of antiquity into context in a similar way of his own comments on Riemann "Ad antike Notenschrift", in On a theory of musical reproduction. 11 As Sachs explains ársis and thésis as dyadic measures: “The term ársis means raising and […] thésis the lowering of the time-dividing hand or foot, according to our terminology upward strike and downward strike.” (Sachs, Die Musik der Alten Welt, p . 242). 12 This in turn relates to the medieval recto tono, precisely as unstressed, as Ivan Illich writes, in which he refers to his earlier work on language and written culture and the function of language in the daily life of monks. Illich himself uses this description from Im Weinberg des Text, a commentary on Hugo's Didascalicon, to illustrate the difference between Beethoven and the "music" of Greek tragedy 230 as it is in contrast to the emphasis. So it is almost impossible to talk about lengths and shortenings in the way that Nietzsche found them to be in the ancient Greek rhythm, precisely because they have inevitably turned into accents of stress in modern European languages. In contrast, the sounding or sounding measure of time in Greek is inherently and in the truest sense of the word music. According to the entry in Liddell and Scott, ἄρσις / ársis is the "lifting, lowering and renewed lifting of the foot in time" 13 and what Nietzsche is about is that this lifting is not accentuated in music either, while the same term is used in the Meaning of the accent in Latin poetry and in the poetry of modern European languages ​​(i.e. English, German, Italian, etc.) is cited as an example of the stressed ictus, which Nietzsche just claims does not exist in Greek. 14 There are exceptions here among modern poets, but it is significant that modern readers find it rather difficult to do anything with them - think of the poet Gerard Manley Hopkins and his rhythm, which is based on the flow of English, but the experts also speak in relation to each other on Milton of this kind of poetic ictus.15 Nietzsche repeats this - in an almost grotesquely subtle way and therefore difficult to understand sbaren - facts in his early philological reflections and he also comes, more importantly, between the different ways, as one learned monk read: “[...] as muffled murmurs when they [the voces paginarum] for his own Ears are intended, or recto tono when addressing the community of monks ”(Illich, Im Weinberg des Textes, p. 59). 13 Liddell and Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon: “Raising of the foot in beating time, opp. θέσις, downward beat, Aristox. Rhyth.12.17, D. H. Dem. 48, Aristid. Quint. 1.13, Luc. Harm. I, etc. ”14“ If there is ictus in the speech - different from the accent - then it must be found in the verse. But the words have the most varied of positions in the verse, now in the arsis, now