What causes alienation


1. Term: According to Marx, the term is intended to describe the negative effects of private ownership of the means of production and the progressive division of labor under capitalism on working people. Both lead to alienation:
(1) Man of the product of his labor (since this does not belong to him, but to the entrepreneur);
(2) the people among themselves (since all interpersonal relationships are largely commercialized, so that people only perceive each other as impersonal factors);
(3) of man of its genus (since the division of labor obscures the true character of production as collaborative, creative action);
(4) of man in and from his work (since the advancing division of labor more and more restricts the free development of individual inclinations and abilities).

2. Abolition of Alienation: According to Marxism, alienation can only pass through socialism or communism Socialization of the means of production and abolition of the traditional division of labor cancel.

3. Consequences / assessment: Abolishing the division of labor would mean causing a major decline in productivity, which would bring the developed economies back to pre-industrial levels. It is precisely the productivity-increasing effect of the division of labor that led to an unimagined increase in leisure time and thus the opportunities for self-realization outside of work as well as the relief of living conditions for all sections of the population. Since more and more different professions are developing in the course of technical progress, the division of labor specialization can itself lead to the realization of individual skills and preferences within the work. The extent to which such scope for self-development arises and can be used has nothing to do with the form of ownership of the workplace, so that socialization of the means of production itself is irrelevant in this context.