Where are the original Ramayan scriptures

Ramayana - Ramayana

Old Sanskrit epic by Valmiki
This article is about the original Sanskrit version of Valmiki. For other uses, see Ramayana (disambiguation).

RAMAYANA (/ r ɑː mɑː j ə n ə /; Sanskrit: रामायणम्, IAST: Ramayanam pronounced [ɾɑːmɑːjɐɳɐm]) is one of the two great Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the essence Mahābhārata . Together with the Mahābhārata it makes up the Hindu Itihasa.

The epic, traditionally attributed to the Maharishi Valmiki, tells the life of Rama, a legendary prince of the city of Ayodhya in the kingdom of Kosala. The epic follows his fourteen-year exile in the forest, which his father King Dasharatha suggested at the request of Rama's stepmother Kaikeyi. his travels through forests on the Indian subcontinent with his wife Sita and his brother Lakshmana, the kidnapping of Sita by Ravana - the king of Lanka, which led to a war; and Rama's eventual return to Ayodhya to be crowned king amid cheers and celebration.

The Ramayana is one of the greatest ancient epics in world literature. It consists of almost 24,000 verses (mostly in the Shloka / Anustubh-meter) that are divided into seven kāṇḍa s are divided, with the first and the seventh later to be added . It belongs to the genre of Itihasa , Narratives of past events ( purāvṛtta ), interspersed with teachings on the goals of human life. Scholars' estimates for the earliest stage of the text range from the 7th to the 4th centuries BC. BC, with later stages extending to the 3rd century AD.

In addition to Buddhist, Sikh, and Jain adaptations, there are many versions of Ramayana in Indian languages. There are also Cambodian (Reamker), Indonesian, Filipino, Thai (Ramakien), Laotian, Burmese, and Malay versions of the story. Retellings include Kamban's Kambaramayanam in Tamil (c. 11th-12th centuries), Gona Budda Reddy's Ranganatha Ramayanam in Telugu (c. 13th century), Madhava Kandali's Saptakanda Ramayana in Assamese (c. 14th century), Krittibas Ojha's Krittivasi Ramayan (also known as Shri Ram Panchali ) in Bengali (c. 15th century), Sarala das' Vilanka Ramayana (c. 15th century) and the Balaramas Dasa Jagamohana Ramayana (also known as the Dandi Ramayana ) (c. 16th century in) both Odia, Sant Eknath's Bhavarth Ramayan (c. 16th century) in Marathi, Tulsidas' Ramcharitamanas (c. 16th century) in Awadhi (which is an Eastern form of Hindi) and Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan's Adhyathmaramayanam in Malayalam (c. 17th century).

The Ramayana was an important influence on later Sanskrit poetry and Hindu life and culture. The characters Rama, Sita, Lakshmana, Bharata, Hanuman and Ravana are all fundamental to the cultural awareness of the South Asian nations of India, Nepal, Sri Lanka and the Southeast Asian countries of Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. Their main moral influence was the importance of virtue in the life of a citizen and in the ideals of the formation of a state or a functioning society.

etymology

The name Rāmāyaṇa consists of two words, Rama and ayaṇa . Rama , the name of the central figure of the epic, has two contextual meanings. In Atharvaveda it means "dark, dark, black" and is related to the word rātri, which means "darkness or silence of the night". The other meaning found in the Mahabharata is "pleasant, pleasant, charming, lovely, beautiful". The word Ayana means journey or journey. Thus, Ramayana means Rama's progress. But there is a little catch. While Ayana Trip or trip means is is Ayya a meaningless word. This conversion of Ayana in Ayyaa occurs based on a Sanskrit grammar rule known as internal sandhi.

Text features

The artistic impression of the sage Valmiki who did this Ramayana composed

genre

The Ramayana belongs to the genre of Itihasa , Narratives of past events ( purāvṛtta ), which include the Mahabharata, the Puranas, and the Ramayana. The genre also includes teaching on the goals of human life. It depicts the duties of relationships and depicts ideal characters such as the ideal father, ideal servant, ideal brother, ideal husband, and ideal king. As the Mahabharata , Ramayana presents the teachings of ancient Hindu sages in narrative allegory, interspersing philosophical and ethical elements.

structure

In its preserved form is Valmikis Ramayana an epic poem with around 24,000 verses, divided into seven Kāṇḍa s (Bālakāṇḍa, Ayodhyakāṇḍa, Araṇyakāṇḍa, Kiṣkindakāṇḍa, Sundarākāṇḍa, Yuddhakāṇḍa, Uttarakāṇa) (500).

Dating

According to Hindu tradition, the narrative takes place in the Ramayana in a period known as Treta Yuga (2,163,102 BC - 867,102 BC).

According to Robert P. Goldman, the oldest parts of the Ramayana date between the middle of the 7th century BC. And the middle of the 6th century BC. This is due to the narrative that mentions neither Buddhism nor the meaning of Magadha. The text also mentions Ayodhya as the capital of Kosala and not as the later name Saketa or the successor capital of Shravasti. In terms of narrative time, the plot goes by the Ramayana the Mahabharata ahead . However, it is believed that the general cultural background of the Ramayana one of the post-urbanization periods is the eastern part of north India while the Mahabharata the Kuru areas to the west of it, from the Rigvedic mirrors to the late Vedic period. Scientific estimates for the earliest stage of the text range from the 7th to the 4th centuries BC. BC, with later stages extending to the 3rd century AD.

The names of the characters (Rama, Sita, Dasharatha, Janaka, Vashista, Vishwamitra) are all known only in late Vedic literature. For example, a king named Janaka appears in a long dialogue in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad with no reference to Rama or that Ramayana . Nowhere in surviving Vedic poetry, however, is there a story similar to that in Ramayana by Valmiki . According to the modern academic view, Vishnu, who according to Bala Kanda was incarnated as Rama, first became known with the epics themselves and beyond in the Puranic period of the later 1st millennium AD. In the epic Mahabharata there is also a version of the Ramayana, as Ramopakhyana is known . This version is presented as a narrative about Yudhishthira.

Books two through six are the oldest parts of the epic, while the first and last books (Bala Kand and Uttara Kand, respectively) appear to be later additions. Differences in style and narrative contradictions between these two volumes and the rest of the epic have led scholars from Hermann Jacobi to this consensus to this day.

Reviews

The Ramayana Text contains multiple regional representations, reviews, and sub-reviews. The text scientist Robert P. Goldman distinguishes two important regional revisions: the northern (n) and the southern (n). Scholar Romesh Chunder Dutt writes that "that Ramayana as the Mahabharata is a growth of centuries, but the main story is more clearly the creation of a spirit. "

A Times of India report dated December 18, 2015, revealed the discovery of a manuscript of the Ramayana off the 6th century in the library of the Asian Society in Calcutta.

It was discussed whether the first and the last volume (Bala Kand and Uttara Kand) by Valmikis Ramayana Written by the original author. The uttarākāṇḍa, the bālakāṇḍa, although often considered to be among the most important, is not part of the original epic. Although balakanda is sometimes considered in the main epic, in the opinion of many, uttarakanda is certainly a later interpolation and therefore is not attributed to the work of Maharshi Valmiki. This fact is confirmed by the absence of these two kāndas in the oldest manuscript. Many Hindus do not believe that they are an integral part of Scripture due to some stylistic differences and narrative inconsistencies between these two volumes and the rest of the text.

character

Summary

Bala Kanda

The wedding of the four sons of Dasaratha with the four daughters of Siradhvaja Janaka and Kushadhvaja. Rama and Sita, Lakshmana and Urmila, Bharata and Mandavi and Shatrughna with Shrutakirti.

This Sarga (Section) describes the stories of Rama's childhood and events related to the time frame. Dasaratha was the king of Ayodhya. He had three wives: Kaushalya, Kaikeyi and Sumitra. He was childless for a long time and really wanted an heir. Therefore he performs a fire sacrifice, which is called Putra-kameshti Yajna is known . As a result, Rama was born first in Kaushalya, Bharata in Kaikeyi, Lakshmana and Shatrughna in Sumitra. These sons are endowed to varying degrees with the essence of the entity Vishnu of the Supreme Trinity; Vishnu had chosen to be born into mortality to fight the demon Ravana, who oppressed the gods and who could only be destroyed by a mortal. The boys were raised as princes of the empire and received instructions from the scriptures and in the war of Vashistha. When Rama was 16 years old, the sage Vishwamitra came to the court of Dasharatha to seek help against demons who were disturbing sacrificial rites. He chooses Rama, followed by Lakshmana, his constant companion in the story. Rama and Lakshmana receive instructions and supernatural weapons from Vishwamitra and destroy Tataka and many other demons.

Janaka was the king of Mithila. One day the king found a female child in the field in the deep furrow that his plow had dug. Overcome with joy, the king viewed the child as "a miraculous gift from God". The child's name was Sita, the Sanskrit word for furrow. Sita grew up to be a girl of incomparable beauty and charm. The king had decided that anyone who could ever lift and wield a heavy bow that Shiva had given his ancestors could marry Sita. The sage Vishwamitra brings Rama and Lakshmana to Mithila to show the bow. Then Rama wants to lift it and continues swinging the bow. When he pulls the cord, it breaks. Marriages were arranged between the sons of Dasaratha and the daughters of Janaka. Rama marries Sita, Lakshmana with Urmila, Bharata with Mandavi and Shatrughna with Shrutakirti. The weddings were celebrated with great feast in Mithila and the wedding celebration returns to Ayodhya.

Ayodhya Kanda

After Rama and Sita are married, an elderly Dasaratha expresses his desire to crown Rama, to whom the Kosala congregation and its subjects express their support. On the eve of the big event, Kaikeyi - her jealousy aroused by Manthara, an evil maid - claims two boons that Dasaratha granted her long ago. Kaikeyi demands that Rama be exiled into the wilderness for fourteen years, while the succession passes to her son Bharata. The broken-hearted king, constrained by his rigid devotion to his given word, complies with Kaikeyi's demands. Rama accepts his father's reluctant decree with absolute submission and calm self-restraint that has characterized him throughout history. Sita and Lakshmana join him. When he asks Sita not to follow him, she says: "The forest in which you live is Ayodhya for me and Ayodhya without you is a real hell for me." After Rama's departure, King Dasaratha dies, unable to endure the grief. Meanwhile, Bharata, who was visiting his maternal uncle, learns of the events in Ayodhya. Bharata refuses to profit from his mother's evil plans and visits Rama in the forest. He asks Rama to return and rule. But Rama, determined to carry out his father's orders on the letter, refuses to return before the time of exile.

Rama leaves Ayodhya in exile for fourteen years.

Aranya Kanda

After thirteen years of exile, Rama, Sita and Lakshmana travel south along the banks of the Godavari River, where they build huts and live on the land. In the Panchavati Forest they are visited by a rakshasi named Shurpanakha, the sister of Ravana. She tries to seduce the brothers and tries to kill Sita after failing. Lakshmana stops her by cutting off her nose and ears. When their brothers Khara and Dushan find out about this, they organize an attack against the princes. Rama defeats Khara and his tasks.

When news of these events reaches Ravana, he decides to destroy Rama by telling Sita with the help of the Rakshasa Maricha captures. Maricha takes the shape of a golden deer and attracts Sita's attention. Sita is fascinated by the deer's beauty and asks Rama to capture it. Rama, aware that this is the demons' trick, cannot stop Sita from her desires and chases the deer into the forest, with Sita remaining under Lakshmana's watch.

After a while, Sita hears Rama calling her. Fearing for his life, she insists that Lakshmana come to his aid. Lakshmana tries to reassure her that Rama is not easily hurt and that it is best if he continues to follow Rama's instructions to protect her. On the verge of hysteria, Sita insists that it is not she who needs help, but Rama Lakshman. He obeys her request, but stipulates that she should not leave the hut or entertain strangers. He draws a chalk outline, the Lakshmana rekha, around the hut and works a spell on it that prevents anyone from entering the border, but allows people to leave. When the coast is finally clear, Ravana appears as an ascetic asking for Sita's hospitality. Without knowing the plan of her guest, Sita is induced to leave the Rekha and is then forcibly carried away by Ravana.

Jatayu