Taoists worship a god or goddess

Chinese gods and immortals - Chinese gods and immortals

This article is about Chinese folk deities. For the Chinese school theology about these gods and the supreme deity of heaven, see Chinese Theology. For a list of Chinese mythology, including gods and immortals, see List of Chinese Mythology.
Complex of deities on an outdoor fountain altar with incense burners in a pilgrimage area in Weihai, Shandong. In the middle stands Mazu, surrounded by the four dragon gods (龍神) and various lower deities. The sun goddess (太陽 神) stands behind Mazu.

The traditional Chinese religion is polytheistic; Many deities are worshiped in a pantheistic view in which the divinity of the world resides. The gods are energies or principles that guide the way of heaven ( Tian 天) reveal, imitate and disseminate, who is the supreme deity who manifests in the northern culms of the starry vault of heaven and its order. Many gods are ancestors or humans who became deities for their heavenly achievements; Most gods are also identified with stars and constellations. Ancestors are considered the equivalent of heaven within human society and therefore a means of reconnecting with heaven, who was the "ultimate ancestor" (曾祖父 zēngzǔfù ) is.

Gods are innumerable as every phenomenon has or is one or more gods, and they are organized in a complex heavenly hierarchy. In addition to traditional worship of these entities, Confucianism, Taoism, and formal thinkers in general give theological interpretations that affirm a monistic essence of divinity. "Polytheism" and "monotheism" are categories that are derived from the Western religion and do not fit the Chinese religion, which has never understood the two things as opposites. Since all gods are manifestations of 氣 , the "force" or Pneuma of Heaven, some scholars have used the term "polypneumatism" or "(poly) pneumatolatry" first coined by Walter Medhurst (1796-1857) to describe the practice of Chinese polytheism. In the theology of Classical texts and Confucianism, "Heaven is Lord of the Hundreds of Deities". Modern Confucian theology compares them to intelligence, essential forms, or entelechies (internal purposes) as explained by Leibniz, and creates all kinds of beings so that "even mountains and rivers are revered as something to enjoy".

Unlike in Hinduism, the deification of historical persons and ancestors is traditionally not the duty of Confucians or Taoists. Rather depends on the decisions of the common people; Individuals are idolized when they have accomplished extraordinary deeds and left an effective legacy. However, Confucians and Taoists have traditionally been able to require that a particular deity be granted state honor. Each deity has a cult center and an ancestral temple where he or she or their parents lived their mortal lives. There are often disputes about where the original place and the starting temple of the cult of a deity is.

terminology

In the Chinese language there is a terminological distinction between 神 shén , 帝 and 仙 xiān . Although the use of the former two is sometimes blurry, in Western cultures it corresponds to the distinction between "god" and "deity", Latin genius (which means a generative principle, "spirit") and Deus or "Deva" (Sanskrit) and 'Divus ; , sometimes translated as "search", implies a "divine" force manifested or incarnated. It is etymologically and figuratively analogous to the concept of di as the basis of a fruit that falls and produces other fruits. This analogy is used in the Shuowen Jiezi confirmed who explains "deity" as "what stands opposite the base of a melon fruit". The latter term 仙 xiān clearly means a man who has achieved immortality (Xian sounds similar to the Sanskrit word Chiranjeevi, the immortal), similar to the western idea of ​​"hero".

God of heaven

Like other symbols like that Swastika , wàn 卍 ("countless things") in Chinese and Mesopotamian 𒀭 Dinger / At ("Heaven"), and also the Chinese 巫 ("Shaman"; represented in Shang script by the potent cross ☩), Tian refers to the north celestial pole (北極 Beiji the fulcrum and the vault of heaven with their spinning constellations). Here is an approximate representation of the Tiānmén 天 門 ("Gate of Heaven") or Tiānshū 天 "(" pivot point of the sky ") as a precessional northern celestial pole with α Ursae Minoris as padding with the rotating carriage constellations in the four phases of time. Reza Assasi theories according to the wan centered only in the current precessional pole at a Ursae Minoris, but also very close to the north, may not be the ecliptic pole if Draco ( Tian 天龙) designed as one of its two rays.

Traditional Chinese theology, which is interpreted differently according to the classical texts and in particular Confucian, Taoist and other philosophical formulations, is fundamentally monistic, that is, it sees the world and the gods who produce it as an organic whole or as a cosmos. The universal principle that gives the world its origin is understood at the same time as transcendent and immanent in creation. The Chinese idea of ​​the universal God is expressed in several ways; There are many names of God from various sources in Chinese tradition.

The radical Chinese terms for the universal god are Tiān 天 and Shàngdì 上帝 (the "supreme deity") or simply 帝 ("deity"). There is also the concept of Tàidì 太 帝 (the "great deity"). is a title that expresses the dominance over the all-under-heaven, ie everything that is created by the sky and arranged according to its cycles and stars. Tiān is usually translated as "heaven", but by graphic etymology it means "great one" and a number of scholars refer it to the same thing through phonetic etymology and trace their common roots through their archaic forms * Teaŋ and * Teas , to the symbols of the square sky deity of the northern sky ( Thing 口). These names are combined in different ways in Chinese theological literature and are often interchanged in the same paragraph, if not the same sentence.

Name of the sky god

Next Shangdi and Taidi belong to the other names Yudi ("Jade Deity") and Taiyi ("Great Unity") who hold the trowel of the Big Dipper (Big Chariot) in mythical images, which enables the world to move life. As the hub of the heavens, the northern celestial pole constellations are known by various names Tiānmén 天 門 ("Gate of Heaven") and Tiānshū 天 樞 ("fulcrum of heaven") known.

Other names of the sky god are documented in the great Chinese religious-philosophical literary tradition:

  • Tiandi 天帝 -the "deity of heaven" or "emperor of heaven": "on rectification" ( Zheng Lun ) of Xunzi used this term to refer to the active god of heaven starting creation;
  • Tiānzhǔ 天主 - the "Lord of Heaven": In "The Document of the Sacrifice to Heaven and Earth on Mount Tai" ( Fengshan shu ) the Notes of the great historian it is used as the title of the first god, from which all the other gods derive.
  • Tiānhuáng 天皇 - the "King of Heaven": In the "Poem of the Unfathomable Depth" ( Si'xuan fu ), which appears in "The History of the Later Han Dynasty" ( Hou Han shu ) is transcribed, Zhang Heng writes artfully: "I ask the superintendent of the heavenly gate to open the door and let me visit the king of heaven in the Jade Palace";
  • Tiāngōng 天公 - the "Duke of Heaven" or "General of Heaven";
  • Tiānjūn 天君 - the "Prince of Heaven" or "Lord of Heaven";
  • Tiānzūn 天尊 - the "heavenly venerable", also a title for high gods in Taoist theologies;
  • Tiānshén 天神 - the "God of Heaven", interpreted in Shuowen Jiezi as "the essence that is all things brings forth ";
  • Shénhuáng 神 皇 - "God the King", testified in Taihong ("The origin of the vital Breath ");
  • Lǎotiānyé (老天爺) - the "old heavenly Father".

Tian is both transcendent and immanent and manifests itself in the three forms of dominance, fate and the nature of things. in the Wujing Yiyi (五 經 異 義, "Different meanings in the five classics") explains Xu Shen that the name of heaven is fivefold:

  • Huáng Tiān 皇天 - "Yellow Heaven" or "Shining Heaven" when he is worshiped as the Lord of Creation;
  • Hào Tiān 昊天 - "Great Heaven" in terms of the breadth of its vital breath ( Qi );
  • Min Tiān 旻 天 - "Compassionate Heaven" because it hears and corresponds to the righteousness of the all-under-heaven;
  • Shàng Tiān 上天 - "Highest Heaven" or "First Heaven", because it is the primordial being that oversees the whole of heaven;
  • Cāng Tiān 蒼天 - "Deep green sky", because it is unfathomably deep.

All of these labels reflect a hierarchical, multi-perspective experience of divinity.

Lists of gods, deities, and immortals

Many classic books have lists and hierarchies of gods and immortals, including the "Complete Record of Deities and Immortals" (神仙 通鑑, Shénxiān Tōngjiàn ) the Ming Dynasty and the Biographies of the deities and immortals or Shenxian Zhuan by Ge Hong (284–343). There are also the older ones collected biographies of the immortals or Liexian Zhuan . Couplets or polarities such as Fuxi and Nuwa, Xiwangmu and Dongwanggong as well as the highest pair of heaven and earth embody Yin and Yang and are at the same time the originators and sustains of the ordering process of space and time.

Stoneware figure of a Daoist (Taoist) deity. From China, Ming Dynasty, 16th Century AD. The British Museum

Cosmic gods

  • Yudi (玉帝 "Jade Deity") or Yuhuang (玉皇 "Jade Emperor" or "Jade King") is the popular human-like representation of the sky god. Jade traditionally stands for purity and is therefore a metaphor for the unfathomable source of creation.
  • Doumu (斗 母 "Mother of the Big Dipper"), often titled with the badge of honor Tianhou ("" Queen of Heaven "), is the heavenly goddess, who is represented as the mother of the Big Dipper (Big Chariot), her seven stars in addition Two invisible sons are conceived as their sons, the Jiuhuangshen (Nine 皇 Nine "Nine God-Kings"), who are themselves regarded as the nine-fold manifestation of Jiuhuangdadi (九 皇 大帝, "Great Deity of the Nine Kings") or Doufu (斗 父) " Father of the Great Chariot "), another name of the sky god. She is therefore both wife and mother of the sky god.
  • Pangu (盤古), a macranthropic metaphor of the cosmos. He separated yin and yang and created the earth (cloudy Yin ) and the sky (clear Yang ). All things were made of his body after he died.
  • Xiwangmu (西 王母 "Queen Mother of the West"), identified with Kunlun Mountain, shamanic inspiration, death and immortality. She is the dark, chthonic goddess, pure Yin , terrifying and benevolent at the same time, both creation and destruction associated with the tiger and weaving. Her male counterpart is Dongwanggong (King 王公 "King Duke of the East"; also known as Mugong, 木 Duke "Duke of the forest"), who the Yang Principle.
    • Yi the archer ( Hòuyì 后羿) was a man who sought immortality and reached Xiwangmu on her mountain, Kunlun.
  • Yanwang (閻王 "Purgatory King"), the ruler of the underworld, supported by Heibai Wuchang (黑白 Black "Black and White Inconsistency"), who escort the spirits, the alternation of Yin and Yang, in addition to Ox-Head and Horse-Face -Represents principles in his kingdom.
  • Yinyanggong (Y 公 "Yinyang Duke") or Yinyangsi (陰陽 司 "Yinyang Controller"), the personification of the union of Yin and Yang.

Three patrons and five deities

Wǔfāng Shāngdì 五方 上帝 - The order of heaven, in the worlds as tán 壇, "altar", the Chinese concept that corresponds to the Indian Mandala corresponds to be inscribed . The supreme god, conceived as the yellow deity and Xuanyuan as his human form, is the heart of the universe and the other four deities are his emanations. The diagram is based on that Huainanzi .
Statue and ceremonial complex of the yellow and red gods in Zhengzhou, Henan.
Temple of the Three Officials of Heaven in Chiling, Zhangpu, Fujian.
  • 三皇 Sānhuáng - Three patrons (or Augusts) or 三才 Sāncái - three potencies; They are the "vertical" manifestation of heaven that spatially correspond to the three realms (三界 Sānjiè ) and represents yin and yang and the medium between them, ie the people:
    • 伏羲 Fúxī, the patron saint of heaven (天皇 Tiānhuáng ), also called Bāguàzǔshī (八卦 祖師 "Venerable Inventor of the Bagua") by the Taoists, is a divine man who is said to have taught mankind to write, fish and hunt.
    • 女媧 Nǚwā, the patron saint of the earth (地 皇 Dehuáng ), is a goddess attributed to creating mankind and restoring order to the world when she was broken.
    • 神農 Shennong - Farmer God, the patron of mankind (人 皇 Renhuang ), identified as yandı (炎帝 "Flame Deity" or "Fiery Deity") said a divine man to have taught the techniques of agriculture, medicine and marketing. He is often depicted as a human with horns and other features of an ox.
  • 五帝 Wǔdì - Five deities, too Wǔfāng shangdi (五方 上帝 "Five manifestations of the Supreme Deity"), Wǔfāng Tiānshén (五方 天神 "Five manifestations of the heavenly God"), Wǔfāngdì (五方 帝 "Five Forms Deity"), Wǔtiāndì (五 天帝 "Five Heavenly Deities"), Wǔlǎojūn (五 老君 "Five Old Men"), Wǔdàoshén (五 道 神 "Five ways of God (s)"); They are the five most important "horizontal" manifestations of heaven and, according to the three powers, have a heavenly, an earthly and a chthonic form. They correspond to the five phases of creation, the five constellations that revolve around the celestial pole and the five planets, the five sacred mountains and five spatial directions (their earthly form) and the five dragon gods who represent their mounts, the material forces they preside over ( their chthonic form).
    • 黃帝 Huángdì - Yellow emperor or yellow deity; or 黃 神 Huángshén - Yellow God, aka Xuanyuan Huangdi (軒轅 黃帝 "Yellow deity of the Chariot Shaft"), is the Zhōngyuèdàdì (中 岳大帝 "Great deity of the central peak"): He represents the essence of the earth and the yellow dragon and is connected with Saturn. The sign 黃 huáng for "yellow" also means through homophony and common etymology with 皇 huáng "August", "Creator" and "radiant" and identifies the Yellow Emperor with Shangdi (the "supreme deity"). Huangdi represents the heart of creation, the Mundi axis (Kunlun), which is the manifestation of the divine order in physical reality and opens the way to immortality. As the deity of the center, who intersects the three patrons and the five deities, he becomes in the Shizi as "Yellow Emperor with four faces" (黃帝 四面 Huángdì Sìmiàn ) described. As a human, he is said to have been the fruit of a virgin birth, such as his mother Fubao received when she was aroused in the country by a lightning bolt from the Big Dipper. She gave birth to her son after twenty-four months on Mount Shou (Longevity) or Mount Xuanyuan (Wagon Shaft), after which he was named. He is considered the founder of Huaxia- Civilization, and the Han Chinese identify as descendants of Yandi and Huangdi.
    • 蒼 帝 Cāngdì - Green deity; or 青 帝 Qīngdì - Blue deity or bluegreen deity, the Dōngdì (東 East " Eastern deity ") or
    Dōngyuèdàdì (東岳大帝 "Great Deity of the East Summit"): He is Tàihào 太昊, associated with the essence of wood and with Jupiter and is the god of fertility and spring. The Bluegreen Dragon is both its animal shape and its constellation. His female consort is the fertility goddess Bixia.
  • 黑 帝 Hēidì - Black deity that Běidì (北 帝 " Northern deity ") or Běiyuèdàdì (北 岳大帝 "Great Deity of the North Summit"): He is Zhuānxū (顓 頊), now often called Xuanwǔ (玄武 "Dark Warrior" is worshiped)) or Zhēnwǔ (真 武) and is associated with the essence of water and winter and with Mercury. Its animal shape is the black dragon and its star animal is the turtle snake.
  • 赤帝 Chìdì - Red deity that Nándì (帝 " Southern deity ") or Nányuèdàdì (南岳 大帝 "Great deity of South Summit "): He is Shennong (the" divine farmer "), the Yandi (" fiery deity "), associated with the essence of fire and summer and with Mars. His animal form is the red dragon and his star animal is the phoenix. He is the god of agriculture, animal husbandry, medicinal plants and the market.
  • 白帝 Báidì - White deity that Xīdì (西 帝 " Western deity ") or Xīyuèdàdì (西岳 大帝 "Great Deity of the Western Summit"): He is Shǎohào (少昊) and the god of the essence of metal and autumn, associated with Venus. Its animal form is the white dragon and its star animal is the tiger.
  • 三 官 Sānguān or 三 官 ā Sānguāndādì - Three officials [of heaven] or three great officer deities: Yao 堯 the official of heaven ( Tiānguān 天 官), Shun 舜 the official of the earth ( Deguān 地 官) and Yu 禹 the official water ( Shuǐguān 水 官).
  • In mythology Huangdi and Yandi fought a battle against each other; and Huang eventually defeated Yan with the help of the dragon (the controller of water who is Huangdi himself). This myth symbolizes the balance of Yin and Yang, here the fire of knowledge (reason and craft) and earthly stability. Yan 炎 is a flame, a scorching fire, or an excess of it (it is important to note that graphically it is a double o huo , "Fire", acts). Since excess fire destroys the earth, it must be controlled by a ruling principle. Nothing is good in itself, without limits; Good results depend on the proportions in the composition of things and their interactions, never on extremes in absolute terms. Huangdi and Yandi are complementary opposites that are necessary for the existence of the other, and they are forces that exist together in man.

    Gods of heavenly and earthly phenomena

    Temple of the Wind God in Tainan.
    • 龍神 Lóngshén - Dragon gods or 龍王 Lóngwáng - Dragon Kings: too Sìhǎi Lóngwáng (四海 Dragon "dragon kings of the four seas") are gods of watery springs, usually reduced to four, patrons of the four seas ( sihai 四海) and the four cardinal points. You are the white dragon (白龍 Báilóng ), the black dragon (玄 龍 Xuánlóng ), the red dragon (朱 h Zhūlóng ) and the Bluegreen Dragon (青龍 Qīnglóng ). Corresponding to the five deities as the chthonic powers sublimated by them (the dragon gods are often depicted as the "mountain" of the five deities) they inscribe the country of China in an ideal sacred square border. The fifth dragon, the Yellow Dragon (黃龍 HUANGLONG ), is the dragon from the center, which is the Yellow god.
    • 雹 神 Báoshén - Hail to God
    • 八 蜡 Bālà , 蟲 ó Chóngshén - Insect god or 蟲 ó Chóngwáng - Insect King: the gods of insects
    • 痘 神 Dòushén - Smallpox god
    • 風神 Fēngshén - Wind god or 飛 帘 Fēi Lián
    • 海神 Hǎishén - Sea god or 海 爷 Haiyé - Sea Lord
    • 河神 Héshén - River god: Any watercourse god, among whom one of the most revered is the god of the Yellow River, 河伯 Hébó - River lord
    • 穀 神 Gǔshén - Tallow god , in the Daodejing a name used to refer to the path
    • 火神 Huǒshén - Fire god, often personified as Zhùróng (祝融)
    • 湖 神 Húshén - Sea god
    • 金 神 Jinshen - Gold god , often as 秋 神 Qiushen - Autumn god identified and as Rùshōu (蓐 收) personified
    • 井 神 Jǐngshén - Water source God
    • 雷神 Léishén - God of thunder or 雷公 Léigōng - Thunder Duke ; his wife is 電 母 Diànmǔ - Lightning mother
    • 木 神 Mùshén - Forest god , usually the same as the 春神 Chūnshén - God of spring, and as Jùmáng (句 芒)
    • 山神 Shanshen - Mountain god
    • 水 神 Shuǐshén - Water god
    • 土地 神 Tǔdìshén - God of the local country or 土 神 Tǔshén - Earth god or 土地公 Tǔdìgōng - Duke of the local country: The patron deity of any place and its overlord is 后土 Hòutǔ - Queen of the earth
    • 瘟神 Wēnshén - Plague god
    • 湘水 神 Xiāngshuǐshén - The goddesses of Xiang Waters are the patrons of the Xiang River
    • 雪 神 Xuěshén - Snow god
    • 雨 神 Yǔshén - rain god
    • 羲 和 Xīhé the 太陽 神 Tàiyángshén - Great sun goddess or 十 日 í í Shírìzhīmǔ - Mother of the Ten Suns
    • 月神 Yuèshén - Moon goddesses: 常 á Chángxī or 十二月 í í Shí'èryuèzhīmǔ - Mother of the twelve moons and 嫦娥 Cháng'é

    Gods of human virtues and crafts

    Guan Yu (center), Guan Ping (right) and Zhou Cang (left) in a religious Chinese folk temple in Osaka, Japan. Guandi is one of the most revered gods among the Han Chinese.
    The Waterside Lady and her two companions Lin Jiuniang and Li Sanniang in the Temple of Heavenly Harmony of the Lushan School of Red Taoism in Luodong, Yilan, Taiwan.
    • Civil ( whom ) and military ( wu ) Deities:
      • 文帝 Wéndi - Cultural deity or 文昌 é Wénchāngdì - Deity, the culture to thrive brings , or 文昌 é Wénchāngwáng - King, the culture thrives brings : In the southern provinces this deity assumes the identity of different historical figures, while in the north he is more often the same than Confucius ( Kǒngfūzǐ 孔夫子)
        • 魁星 Kuíxīng - Chief Star, another god of culture and literature, but specifically of testing, is a personification of the man who awakens to the Order of the Great Chariot
      • 武帝 Wǔdì - Military deity: 關 帝 Guandi - Divus Guan, also called 關 公 Guangong - Duke Guan, and among the people 關羽 Guany
        • Another class is the 戰神 Zhànshén - Battle god that of Chīyóu (蚩尤) or Xíngtiān (刑 天 who was beheaded for fighting Tian) can.
    • 保生大帝 Bǎoshēngdàdì - Great deity who protects life
    • 八仙 Bāxiān - Eight immortals
    • 蠶 神 Canshen - Silkworm god who can be:
      • Án 母 Cánmǔ - Silkworm mother, also 蠶 姑 Cangu - called the silkworm maiden), which as Léizǔ (嫘 ​​祖, the wife of the Yellow Emperor): the invention of silk cultivation is primarily attributed to her
      • Ī 神 Qīngyīshén - Bluegreen-clad God: His name as a human was 蠶 叢 Cáncóng - Silkworm branch, and he is the first ruler and ancestor of the Shu state and promoter of silk cultivation among his people
    • 財神 Cáishén - God of prosperity
    • 倉 頡 Cāngjié , the four-eyed inventor of the Chinese characters
    • 城隍 神 Chénghuángshén - Moat and wall god, border god: The god of the sacred borders of a human agglomeration is often personified by the founding of fathers or noble personalities from every town or community
    • 陳靖 姑 Chénjìnggū - Old quiet lady, also 臨水 夫人 Línshuǐ Fūrén - Called the Waterside Lady
    • 車 神 Chēshén - Vehicle god
    • 二郎神 Èrlángshén - Twice a young god, the god of technology
    • Ǎ 澤 尊王 Guǎngzé Zūnwáng - King of Honor of greatness compassion
    • 觀音 Guanyin - She who hears the cries of the world, the Goddess of Mercy
    • 黃大仙 Huáng Dàxiān - Great immortal Huang
    • 濟 公 Jìgōng - Help the Lord
    • 酒神 Jiǔshén - Wine god , personified as 儀 狄 Yidi
    • 九天 玄女 Jiǔtiān Xuánnǚ - Mysterious Woman of the Nine Heavens, a student of Xiwangmu and initiator of Huangdi
    • 龍 母 Lóngmǔ - Mother dragon
    • 魯班 Lǔbān , the god of carpentry
    • 路 神 Lùshén - Street god
    • 媽祖 Māzǔ - Mother of the ancestors, often referred to as the Queen of Heaven
    • 平安 神 Píng'ānshén - God of peace, whose embodiment Mao Zedong is said to have been
    • 清水 祖師 Qīngshuǐ Zǔshī - Venerable Patriarch of Clear Stream
    • 陶 神 Táoshén - Potter god
    • 兔兒 神 Tùershén - Leverage god , the god of love among men
    • 托塔 李 天王 Tuōtǎlǐ Tiānwáng - Tower-leading heavenly king, personally Li Jing, who has three sons, the martial guardian deities Jīnzhā (金吒), Mùzhā (木 吒) and Nǎzhā (哪吒)
    • 顯 Wǔxiǎn - Five Shining, possibly a popular form of the cosmological five deities
    • 喜 神 Xǐshén - Joy to God
    • 藥 神 Yàoshén - Medicine god or often 藥王 Yàowáng - Medicine king "
    • 月下老人 Yuèxià Lǎorén - Old man under the moon, the matchmaker who brings lovers together
    • 獄 神 Yùshén - Prison Purgatory God
    • 灶神 Zàoshén - Herd God, the Lord of the household gods, including: the Bed God (床 神 Chuángshén ), the gate gods (門神 PEOPLE ) and the toilet god (廁 神 Cèshén ), often personified as Zigu
    • 三星 Sānxīng - Three stars, a group of three astral gods of wellbeing:
      • 福星 Fúxīng - Prosperity star, god of luck
      • 祿 星 Lùxīng - Firmness Star, god of stability and success in life and trials
      • 壽星 Shòuxing - Longevity star, which stands for a healthy and long life

    Gods of animal and vegetable life

    • 花 神 Huāshén - Flower goddess
    • 狐 神 Húshén - Fox God (dess) or 狐仙 Húxiān - Fox Immortal ", also 狐仙 娘娘 Húxiān Niángniáng - called Fox Immortal Lady "
      • Two other great fox deities peculiar to northeast China are the Great Lord of the Three Foxes (ú 三 ú Húsān Tàiyé ) and the Great Lady of the Three Foxes (胡 三 太 ú Húsān Tàinǎi ), which represent the yin and yang
    • 馬 神 Mǎshén - Horse god or Mǎwáng 马王 - Horse King
    • 牛 神 Niúshén - Cattle god or